Skip to main content

Full text of "Explanatory analysis of St. Paul's First Epistle to Timothy.."

See other formats


tihxavy of €he Cheolojiical ^^mxmvy 

PRINCETON • NEW JERSEY 



From the library of 
Prof. Benjamin Breckinridge Warfleld 

. L7 1 3 



EXPLANATORY ANALYSIS 



^T. PAUL'S FIRST EPISTLE TO T1M0TH\ 



H. P. LIDDON, D.D., D.C.L, LL.D. 

LATE CANON AND CHANCELLOR OF ST. PAUl's 
IRELAND PROFESSOR OF EXEGESIS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 187O-1882 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK, AND BOMBAY 

1897 

All rights reserved 



Ojefotb 

HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 

Dr. Liddon drew up this Analysis for the use of his 
pupils, when he was lecturing on this Epistle, as Ireland 
Professor of Exegesis. It was privately printed in 
1877, and is now published in substantially the same 
form as he left it. Only a few verbal alterations have 
been made. 

Dr. Liddon's literary executors wish to express their 
thanks to Mr. J. C. Du Buisson, M.A., late Demy of 
Magdalen College, for verifying all the references and 
quotations. 

St. Matthias' Day, 1897. 



SUMMARY ANALYSIS 

Salutation (i. i, 2). 

I. 

Purpose of the Apostle in placing Timothy at Ephesus 
(i. 3-20). 

11. 

Peactical measures to assist the object for which Timothy 
IS TO WORK in Ephesus (ii. i-iv. 11). 

(i) The organization of Public Worship) (ii. 1-15). 

(2) The requirement of a sufficiently high moral standard 

in the Clergy (iii. 1-15). 

(3) Earnest inculcation of the true Faith (iii. i6-iv. 11). 

III. 

How Timothy is to govern himself and the Church of 
Ephesus (iv. 12-vi. 10). 

(i) Rules for Timothy's personal life, but intended to 
promote his efficiency as a Church Ruler (iv. 12-16). 

(2) Directions for his guidance when dealing with different 
classes of persons (v. i-vi. 10). 

IV. 

Epilogue. Four parting exhortations, summing up leading 
practical lessons of the Epistle (vi. 11-21). 



ST. PAUL'S FIRST EPISTLE 
TO TIMOTHY 



Salutation (i. i, 2). 

1. From ivhom the greeting is sent (ver. i). 

/ 1. Source of his Apostolic authority is Jesus 
Paul the) I Christ. 

Apostle.) ^1 a. of God the Father, 

V 2. Standard of his au- 1 a-coTripos rnxav 
thority is regulated (ver. i). 

by the command] 6. of the Lord Jesus 
(kot' eiTtTayriv) Christ, our Hope 

\ (ver. i). 

2. To whom the greeting is sent (ver. 2). 

rp. , , / 1, child to a spiritual parent ; 

, . , , . , ' , , 2. vrTjo-ico— not illeoitimate ; 
his relation to the-i ' ' ' /^ 

3. iv TTL<TTeL — not m the order of nature 

V (ver. 2 a). 

3. In tuJiat the greeting consists (ver. 2 6). 

IiX^pi.9, 
I. threefold gift - eAeos, 
[elprivn. 
2. emanating from • " ^''^ arpos 



Apostle as 



/cat 



' I 



(aTTo) 1 

16. XptoToS 'Irjo-ou Tov Kvpiov i]p.(av. 



B 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



[Obs. I. Peculiarities of this greeting are (i) Kar kitiia^^v 
@iov, for the usual hih. OeKruxaros Oeov, as in i Cor. i. i ; 
2 Cor. i. I ; Eph. i. i ; Col. i. i ; 2 Tim. i. i. iinTa'yr} 
implies 6i\rip.a, but also points to St. Paul's being an 
Apostle in the special sense of one immediately com- 
missioned by God. Of this, Timothy did not require to 
be reminded : St. Paul has other readers of the Epistle — 
perhaps false teachers — in view, as in Gal. and Cor. 
(2) The designation of God the Father as ffairfip fiixwv is 
peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles. He is so named on 
account of His care for our healing and salvation 
manifested through sending His Son. Luke i. 47 ; Tit. 
i. 3 ; ii. 10. Christ is our kKms, as winning and being ^ 
the Eternal Life which is the object of hope. Tit. i. 2. 
So Col. i. 27. (3) In the Benediction itself between 
Xap's and fiprjvr] is inserted the word eXeos. Nowhei'e 
else, except in 2 Tim. i. 2 ; since in Tit. i. 4 the readinj^ 
lAfos is not genuine. eXeos is added to the xisual 
greeting, because Bishops, such as Timothy, on account 
of their great responsibilities, especially need it.] 

[Obs. 2. Timothy is a 'yvrjcriov tIkvov iv maTei. Not Kara 
aapKa, but hv iricrTei : see i Cor. iv. 14-17. St. Paul is the 
spiritual father of his converts : see Gal. iv. 19. reKvov 
is strengthened by yvrjcnov. Timothy is not a vuBos, 
like some of the false teachers perhaps. His faith 
was woi-thy of his spiritual parentage. He is St. Paul's 
TfKvov djaTTTiTuv Koi maTov iv Kvpiw. i Cor. iv. 17.] 

[Obs. 3. Even if the untenable rifMwv were retained after 
Qeov narpos in ver. 2, Xpiarov 'Iijaov would depend not on 
Trarpos, but on dno. Christ is a second although mediating 
source, from and through Whom the blessings of the 
Father descend upon the Church.] 



I 



Purpose of the Apostle in placing Timothy 
at Ephesus (i. 3-20). 

§ 1. The Apostolic Commission, which had been addressed 
by St. Paul to Timothy (ver. 3 a). 

1. In what terms (TrapeKaAeo-a). Timothy entreated 
as a friend. 

2. To what effect (Trpocr/aetyai Iv 'Et^eVo)). Timothy 
is to remain stationed at Ephesus. 

3. Under what circumstances. St. Paul himself was 
on his way to Macedonia (ver. 3 a). 

§ 2. Purpose (ira, ver. 3 6) of this Commission in Ephesus. 
Timothy is to command some teachers 

I. not to play at deviations from the Apostolic 

doctrine (hepobLbaa-KaXelv) (ver. 3 6).. 

^ 2. not to give attention to (early Gnostic) fJiv6oi and 

interminable genealogies (of imaginary beings) 

(ver. 4 a). 

§ 3. Reasons for the work thus enjoined on Timothy 

(vv. 4 6-17). 
Reason I (general). The new Ephesian teaching does not 
secure the true ends of Christian instruction (vv. 4 6-6). 
I. The (^xv6oL and) yeveakoyiai do more to suggest points 
for controversy than to illustrate the Divine Dis- 
pensation (of Redemption), which is only understood 
in the sphere of faith (ver. 4 It). 
B 2 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



This 

Love must' 

issue 



2. On the other hand (8e), the end which is aimed at by 
the injunction which Timothy is to give (TrapayyeA-ia) 
to the Ephesian teachers is (the promotion of) Love 
(ayaTTJj) to GoD and Man. 

,a. from a pure heart (which alone is 
capable of true love). 

from a good conscience (which inter- 
poses no secret barrier between love 
and its object). 

c. from a faith, which is what it professes 
to be (avvTTOKpiTov), (and so gazes 
really on the object of love) (ver. 5). 

3. The erring teachers at Ephesus had missed their pre- 
sumed aim [acTToxjoo-avTis) at these sources of charity, 
and had turned aside (from the path which leads 
to God) to discuss empty trivialities (//aratoA.oyiay) 
(ver. 6). 

Reason II [specific). The Ephesian teachers are mistaken 
in their ideas about the Law of Moses (vv. 7-10). 

Mistake i in respect of their own capacity for discussing 
it. Their tvish is to be voixobibda-Kakoi, somewhat on 
the Jewish pattern. But in point of fact they under- 
stand neither the phraseology which they employ, 
nor the subject respecting which they speak so 
positively (ver. 7). 

Mistake 2 in supposing that the law, as an outward rule, 
is designed to help the Christian bUaios. Yet for him 
it does not exist as an external code, confronting and 
condemning his conscience ; because the Holy Spirit 
has made it the guiding principle of his inward 
being. Rom. viii. 4. (ver. 9). 



Chapter i. 5-10 5 

§ The Apostle concedes {oila\i.i:v) that the law is ex- 
cellent ((caXo?) if it be used in accordance with its 
true design (voixiixcas) (ver. 8). 

Mistake 3 in forgetting that the law, as an outivard I'ule. 
is intended for the sinful (vv. 9 h-10). 

These sinners, for whom the law Ketrai, are described 
(a) generically, in their relations 

{a. neglecting it, di'Ojuot?. 
I, to law, as -j . . . 

6. resisting it, avvixoTaKTois. 



{ 



, ^ {a. not reverins: Him, ao-eSeo-t. 

2. to God, as J . . , '. 

[0. sinning against Him, buiapr 

I' 



h. sinning against Him, afxapruiXoh. 

a. being without it, avoaiois. 
3. to sanctity, as •!?>. being outside its sphere, ^Qe^r/Aot? 
(ver. 9). 

(b) specifically, as exaggerated offenders against 

/I. The fifth Com- ) Strikers of fathers, TrarpaA-wats. 
mandment i Strikers of mothers, juTjTpaAwais. 

2. The sixth Com-K^ , ^ 5 ^' 

/■Murderers, avbpocpovois. 
mandment ^ 

3. The seventh Com-\ iropvoLS. 

mandment ) apa-^voKoiTais. 

4. The eighth Com- ) , ^ , , - ,- - 
^ ° > Man-capturers, avopa-noOKTrai^. 

mandment ) 

5. The ninth Com- 1 Liars, x/^ewrats. 

mandment /Perjured, e-ntopKois. 

6. Any other offenders who are in antagonism to the 
\ healthy (Apostolic) doctrine (as to morals) (ver. 10). 

§ Now this estimate of the law is not arbitrary or 
subjective, but Kara to evayyeXiov rrjs bo^r^s rod 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



fiaKaplov 0eoS, which had been entrusted to the 
Apostle. Thus he is led to mention, although 
indirectly, 

Reason III. The Apostolic teaching (i. e. the pure Gospel, 
in contrast to the Ephesian ixaTaioXoyia) does, as his own 
experience proves, satisfy the deepest wants of man 
(vv. i2-t6). 

§ This is shown by reference to what the Gospel had 
done for the Apostle himself (vv. 12-16). 

A. The blessings he has experienced (vv. Ti-i3a). 
Here 

1. He describes the Apostolic doctrine as ' the Gospel 

of the glory of the blessed God.' Yet he had 
been entrusted with it (ver. ii). 

2. He thanks our Lord Jesus Christ, Who has en- 

dowed him with spiritual power, 
a. for putting him into the ministry ; 
h. as a proof of deeming him faithful (ver. 12). 

3. He contrasts his unconverted life, as that of 

a blasphemer, /with the mercy extended to him in 
a persecutor, \ his Conversion and Apostleship 
an insulter, ( (ver. 13). 

B. Reasons for this extraordinary mercy (vv. 13 6-16). 

1. In the days of his unbelieving Jewish life he had 

acted in ignorance of God's real will (ver. 13 h). 

2. The Divine Grace was in excess, even of such need 

as his. It was accompanied with faith and love, 
such as are found in those who are in Christ. 
He could understand how faithful to truth, and 
how entitled to the best attention of all human 
beings, was that proverbial saying current in the 
Church, which told that ' Christ Jesus came into 



Chapter i. 11-17 7 

the world to save sinners.' In his own estima- 
tion he himself was the person beyond all others 
who had needed to be thus saved (vv. 14, 15). 

3. He was to be a vTiorvTrwo-t? rwy [liWovriav -nicr- 
Tevi.iv eis C^i]v amviov. No claim of his own, but 
this gracious purpose towards others in after 
ages, was the reason for the mercy which he had 
experienced. He was the person in whom, first 
of all, Jesus Christ would show the whole power 
of His compassionate and forbearing love 
(ver. 16). 
§ Doxology uttered by the Apostle out of deeply-moved 

gratitude for the blessings of Redemption (ver. 17). 

(a) To whom this doxology is offered, rw /Sao-iAei roiv 

alm'oiv — to the King of the Ages (ver. 17). 

[Obs. alwvis here, as at Heb. i. 2 ; xi. 3. (The ages in the 
aggregate suggest Eternity.) The full title here only 
in the New Testament ; but at Tobit xiii. 6, 10, Ecclus. 
xxxvi. 17. No reference to the Aeons of later Gnosticism.] 

a(})ddpT(a, Whom decay cannot reach (ver. 17). 

[cf. Rom. i. 23 ; Wisd. xii. i ; i Tim. vi. 16 : u fiovos txojf 
i. e. dOavaaiav.^ 

to j2. aopdT(o, Whom the eye of sense cannot see 
God a (ver. 17). 

(060)) [of. I Tim. vi. i6 ; Col. i. 15.] 

3. jLioVw, Who alone is What He is (ver. 17). 

i \^(Toipw, text. rec. untenable. Cf. vi. 15, fiovos SvvaffTr]s.] 

(b) In what this doxology consists (ver. 17). 

1. Tiixr]\ 

KOI Yels Tovs atcoras t&v aloii'oov (ver. 17). 

2. b6$a) 

[Obs. St. Paul elsevehere has only So^a in doxologies. For 
this form, cf. Rev. v. 13. It corresponds to "^U}] '^^'^ 
in Ps. xxi. 5 ; xcvi. 6.] 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



§ 4. The Commission to remain and work at Ephesus again 
laid (TrapaTiOeixai) on Timothy (vv. 18-20). 

[Obs. I. There is no apodosis to the protasis beginning 
KaOws, ver. 3. The apodosis escapes the Apostle, owing 
to the necessary length of the protasis. Accordingly 
ver. 18 resumes the Apostolic order given in w. 3-5, 
but with a new construction, and new reasons to 
support it.] 

[Obs. 2. The reasons which follow are personal to Timothy, 
and are therefore introduced by the affectionate rtKvov 
Tt;i(50€e.] 

1. This Commission is in accordance with the tenor of 

the prophetic utterances over Timothy which had 
preceded his undertaking it [Kara ras irpoayovaas (ttI 
(re TTpo^rjTeias) (ver. 18 h). 

2. It is designed (tva) to enable him to bear himself as 

Christ's soldier should; equipped, as if in armour 
in these consolatory prophecies {iv avrais) (ver. 18 6). 

1. Timothy will succeed in this by holding fast (ex&)v) to 

i, faith (in the Apostolic teaching) ; 
ii. a good conscience (cf . ver. 5), (ver. 19 a). 

2. (Reasons for i. ii.) Practical reasons, drawn from 
experience, for keeping hold on a good conscience 
(vv. 196-20). 

a. (general). Some Christians, having deliberately 

thrust a good conscience from them (a-ncoadixevoL), 
have been afterwards shipwrecked in the matter 
of the Faith. A true belief will not long survive 
unfaithfulness to God's inward voice (ver. 19 h). 

b. [particidar). Hymenaeus and Alexander are living 

examples of this. They have been delivered over 
to Satan by the Apostolic excommunication, that 
they may be taught by punishment not to blas- 
pheme (God and His Truth) (ver. 20). 



Chapter i. 18-20 



[Obs. I. Hymenaeus is probably the person mentioned at 
2 Tim, ii. 17, as teaching Tr\v dvaaraaiv ySr^ -ycyovivai, 
and as overthrowing the faitli of some Christians. Tliis 
was the final result of his exchanging a good conscience 
for a bad one ; his excommunication had preceded his 
association with Philetus in propagating the denial of 
the future resurrection of the body. It is scarcely 
probable that Alexander is the person described as the 
smith (o x«^'^f'5s) in 2 Tim. iv. 14, since that epithet is 
probably used to distinguish him from the better known 
associate of Hymenaeus.] 

[Obs. 2. For the form TrapaSi56vai tw 'Sarava, cf. i Cor. v. 5. 
Exclusion from the kingdom or Church of God by 
excommunication implies surrender to the ' prince of 
this world,' who reigns outside it and seizes those wlm 
pass the frontier. Cf. i Cor. v. 2, 'iva dpOfj l« fieaov, and 
ver. 5. In the Apostolic age, judicial separation from 
the Church was followed sometimes by bodily sufferings: 
I Cor. V. 5, (h oXtOpov TTj's aapKos. Its object was not 
penal, but remedial ; ha isaiZivOwaiv. It was to promote 
the conversion of the excommunicate. On tliis subject, 
cf. Article xxxiii.] 



II 

Practical measures which are to assist the 
object for which Timothy is cominissioiied to 
work in Ephesus (ii. i-iv. ii). 

(I) 
First Measure (npooTov ndivTcov) for upJioIding Apostolic 
Doctrine in Ephesus. The organization of Public 
Worship (ii. 1-15). 

[Obs. This is a practical consequence {ovv, ii. i) of the 
irapayyfKia (i. 3, 18). As before (i. 3) the Apostle still 
entreats Timothy, irapaKaXw (/&.)•] 

I. Nature of the Public Worship to be offered to God 

{TTOula-dai), (ver. i). 

/ I. herjaeis, expressing sense of personal insufficiency 

or want (8eaj). Prayer for Divine help and 

grace. 

;. TTpoa-evxai, expressing to a person (irpo^) a wish or 

vow (e^xof-tai). Prayer considered as an appeal 

to God. 

,. hrev^eis, intimate approach to GoD (in the way 

of intercession), [ivrvyxdveLv). 

^ 4. (vxapLo-Tiai, thanksgivings (ver, i). 

[Obs. I. Of the four words which are employed to express 
the general idea of prayer, birjais and rrpoaevxfi occur 
together as synonyms at Eph. vi. 18 ; Phil. iv. 6. 
irpoaevxv is the more generic term of the two, as 



Chapter ii. i, 2 11 

implying any expression of wish to God, and not merely 
that arising from a sense of personal insufficiency. 
Equally general is {vrev^is, which only acquires the 
sense of intercession with reference to others from the 
prepositions with which it is connected. Kom. xi. 2, 
Kara rivos. Rom. viii. 34 ; Heb. vii. 25 : virtp tivos. In 
itself, tvTev^is means only approach to the Divine 
Presence, implying trust in God's willingness to receive.] 
[Obs. 2. St. Augustine (Ep. cxlix. 16, ad Paulln.) applies 
these words to the Eucharistic OflSce ; Sejjcreis to the 
precationes before the Canon ; Tipoatvxai to the Canon, 
especially the consecration ; kvT(v^iis to the prayers 
between the Lord's prayer and the blessing — interpel- 
lationes ; and evxapK^Tiai to the gratiarum actio, or 
thanksgiving, at the close. The words irpo(T(vxri, Seijffis, 
and euxap'o^Tia, are combined at Phil. iv. 6, as means 
of TO. airrifiaTa v/xctiv yvcopi^eaOai irpos tov 0€oi'.] 

II. Persons to he remembered in the Public Worship offered 

to God. 

f I. viT€p TrdvTMv avOptaTTcav. Human beings, without 
any exception (ver. i). 

[Obs. On the Puritan objection to the prayer in the 
Litany, ' That it may please Thee to have mercy upon 
all men,' see Hooker, E. P. b. 5, ch. 49.] 

;. v-nep ^aanXiMv. Kings, Emperors. The Roman 
especially, but also others (ver. 2). 

[Obs. No inference as to the date of the Epistle can be 
drawn from the plur. ^aaiKtaiv, which is only general.] 

;. iravTctiv tQv kv vTrepoxfj ovtoov. All persons in public 

\ offices connected with government (ver. 2). 

III. Purpose of the intercessions (for the heathen govern- 
ment) offered to God (ver. 2 6). 

That Christians may live 

/' I. in outward quietness and peace (and so more 
easily) ; 
2. in all piety (evo-e/Seia) and gravity (c^e/x^•o'r)Jrt) 
(ver. 2 h). 



12 The First Epistle to Timothy 

[Obs. I. There is no practical distinction between Tjpffxov 
and fiavxiov. The clause expresses, not the contents of 
the prayer for the government, but an important object 
to be secured by it. The prayer is for the highest good 
of the Emperor and his subordinates : but Christians 
pray for them, with the further hope that an answer 
tb their prayers will secure their own tranquillity. In 
Apost. Const, viii. 12, this motive is embodied in the 
prayer 'iva fiprjvdjwvTai to. npus ^J/xas.] 

[Obs. 2. On the use of prayers for the government in the 
early Church, see St. Justin Mart. Ap. i. c. 17 ; Athena- 
goras. Legal, pro Chrislianis, sub fin. ; Origen, Contra Celsum, 
viii. 73 ; Tertullian, Apolog. c. 30.] 

§ Digression. Reasons for the foregoing Apostolic direction 
enjoining Public Prayer for all (vv. 3-7). 

[Obs. TovTo refers to ver. r, noifiaOai.'] 

Reason i from the intrinsic excellence {KaXov) of such 
prayer. Prayer for all, addressed to the Source of all 
good, approves itself as good to the moral sense of 
man (ver. 3). 

Reason 2 from the acceptableness of such prayer before 
God, the Saviour of men {aonTijpos rjfxc^v) (ver. 3). 

[Obs. On ivijiriov @(ov, cf. 2 Cor. viii. 21, where ivwmov 
Kvpiov is contrasted with evumoy dv9pa)ir<uv.'] 

Reason 3 (reason (os, quippe qui) for 2) from the 
(antecedent) Will of GoD. He wills {diXei, not jSovXeraL) 
(ver, 4) 

. that all should be saved (iravTas a-wOijvai) : (ver. 4). 

;. that all should come to the full knowledge of the 

I truth (eis t-niyvcacriv aK.r]d€ias) (ver. 4). 

[Obs. I. This may be in opposition to some early forms of 
(what became afterwards) the Gnostic doctrine, to the 
effect that cex-tain classes of men (the Hylici and 
Psychici) are incapable of salvation. But the context 
supplies abundant reason for the statement, which may 
well be irrespective of any polemical import.] 



Chapter ii. 3-5 13 



^Obs. 2. This Will of God (i) excludes His willing {vohintate 
anfeccdenfe) the damnation of any, (2) includes His 
giving gratia sufficiens for salvation to all ; but (3) is 
not inconsistent with the abuse of its free self-deter- 
mination on the part of a created will, and so with the 
actual condemnation of some men, which condemnation 
God also wills, not originally, but (voluntate consequente) 
as a consequence of man's abuse of His gifts.] 
[Obs. 3. acuOrjuai is the aim of the Divine will, (niyiojcni 
dXT]6(ias is the precedent condition. ' Quod ultimum 
est in executione primum in intentione.' It is not 
a case of Hysteron Proteron.] 

Reason 4 (reason (yap) for 3) from the Oneness of God, 
the gi'ound of His will that all should be saved 
(ver. 5 a). 

§ There is One God. As He is the only true God of 
all His creatures. He wills the salvation of all 
(ver. 5 a). 

[Obs. I. It is implied that one of many gods might desire 
the salvation of only a portion of the human race. 
The Unity of God suggests that the One Supreme Being 
has an equal interest in all His creatures. Cf. Rom. 
iii. 30 : f'liTfp 61J 6 ©eos, fis biKaiwati TrepiTOfirjv l« niarews, 
Kai aKpo^variav dia rrjs Triarfois.] 

[Obs. 2. The Unity of God is generally taken for granted 
in the N. T. It is referred to by St. Paul in i Cor. viii. 6, 
as the antithesis of polytheism ; in Eph. iv. 6, as the 
climax of the truths which should secure unity in the 
Church.] 

Reason 5 from the Oneness of the Mediator (here ets 
//ecriVjjs also justifies Oik^i, ver. 4) between God and man, 
Himself truly Human, and representative of the race of 
men (ver. 5). 

[Obs. I. In St. Paul's earlier Epistles ixfffirrjs is used of 
Moses : Gal. iii. 19, 20. Cf. Meyer in loo. Elsewhere 
in the Hebrews only, in connection with SiaOrjKi]. Heb. 
viii. 6, Kpiirrovos SiaOriKrjs fxeaiTTji. ix. 15, BiaOrjKrjs Katviji 
lifa'nri<s. xii. 24, diadrjKris vtas [nairri 'Irjcrov. Here our 
Lord is ixea'iTTjs, as one through Whom the Father 
realized His OiKti -navras awd^vai.] 



14 The First Epistle to Timothy 



[Obs. 2. It is possible, but hardly probable, that dv0pojTro9 
(ver. 5) is a protest against Docetism. Our Lord's 
Manhood is elsewhere insisted on without any polemical 
object : Kom. v. 15, as the antitype to Adam ; i Cor. 
XV. 21, as antitypal to Adam, and the cause of the 
Resurrection ; Phil. ii. 7, 8, as the form of humiliation 
taken on Him at the Incarnation ; Heb. ii. 16, 17, as 
involved in the necessity under which He was as High 
Priest to be made in all things like unto His brethren. 
On our Lord's humanity as the instrument of His 
Mediation, which has its basis in the union of His two 
Natures in His Eternal Person, see Wilberforce, Boctrine 
of the Incarnation, cha}). 7. The representative relation 
of His manhood to the whole race of men is the deepest 
reason for His OeXei iravTa^ ffwOijvai in ver. 4.] 

Reason 6 from the Scojje of the Redemptive Work 
of the Mediator. The one Mediator gave Himself 
a Ransom in exchange [avTikvTpov) for all {y-n\p 
TiavToiv) (ver. 6). 

[Obs. I. dvTiXvTpov, which occurs only here, differs from 
XvTpov only in accentuating, by the prefixed preposition, 
the idea of exchange. For other references to our 
Lord's atoning death, see Tit. ii. 14, iScoKev iavrov vnep 
ijixwv Iva KvTpuiar)T(u yfias diro irdarjs dvopLias : Col. i. 14, iv 
w 'ixojJiiv Tjjv dnoXvTpwcnv, Tr]v dip^aiv twv aixapTiaiu : St. John 
vi. 51, o dpros 5( tv ifijj Sdicroj iintp t^s tov Kofffj-ov f<w^y, ^ 
<xdp^ fj.ov kaTiv. (Tisch.) So here kavrov, as in St. Mat. 

XX. 28 TTjV \pvxw-] 

[Obs. 2. inrep ■jrdvTon' 'for the good of all' carries us back to 
ver. 4. If Christ died that all may live, it is in harmony 
with His Will to pray that all may live.] 

§ The testimony to this avrikvTpov virep ttcivtcdv was to follow 
in its due time (ver. 6). 

[Obs. /xapTvpiov, an appositional accusative. The testimony 
to the dvTiXvTpov : not the dvTiKvrpov itself testifying 
to the Divine OiKu (ver, 4). This fxapTvpiov is given 
to the world through the activity of the Christian 
Church, when and as God's Providence determines. 
For KaipoTs idiotSj see i Tim. vi. 15 ; Tit. i. 3 ; Gal. vi. 9.] 



Chapter ii. 6-8 15 

Reason 7 from the Apodle's personal duty, marked 
out by his position (ds o hidrjv, ver, 7) in the Churcli. 
as taking part in its public testimony to the avTikvrpov 
vTTep TTCLVTcav. If he thus witnessed to a Ransom offered 
for all men, this was a reason for his insisting on 
prayers for all (ver. 7). 

Here note 

/I, appointment {h46rjv). 

fKi]pv^, suggesting his chief work. 



The 
Apostle's 



2. office, 'dTj-ooToXos, his mission from GoD. 

' bibdaKaXos lOvdv, his range of action. 
v3. sphere of action, kv iria-Tet koL aXi^deia (ver.7). 



[Obs. I. nTjpv^, here and 2 Tim. i. 11, of preachers of the 
Gospel. In 2 St. Peter ii. 5, of Noah. Cf. Kypvaaav, 
I Cor. ix. 27 ; xv. 12. diruaroXos in the higher and 
restricted sense, cf. Gal. i. i ; as is implied by the pro- 
testation dX-fjOfiav Xi'yoj which follows, cf. Rom. ix. i. 
ZiZaaKaXos idvUbv, doctor Gentium; Gal. ii. 7-9; Rom. 
xi. 13 ; 2 Tim. i. 11.] 

[Obs. 2. kv moTft Kal d\T]6eiq. not (i) the object of tlie 
5t5a(TKa\os in his work, since this would be expressed 
by (h : nor (2) the same as ev ry marei rrj dKrjOivfj, since 
an independent idea is expressed by each of the words ; 
but (3) the sphere within which the Apostle works. 
m'ffTty describes the subjective condition of his work ; 
dX-fjOfia, the blessing which he administers. Cf. Rom. 
ii. 20 for a parallel relation of jvwais and d\r]Ofta.'} 

IV, Conduct of those who take part in the Public Worship 
offered to God (vv. 8-15). 

A. How men are to pray (ver. 8). 

[Obs. With ovv the Apostle resumes the injunctions which 
had been interrupted by the digression (w. 3-7). 
^avXofiai expresses Apostolic authority, praecipio. The 
context shows that by npoatvxeoOai public prayer must be 
intended.] 



1 6 The First Epistle to Timothy 

1. Place, [kv -navrl totto).) Wherever Christians as- 
semble (ver. 8). 

[Obs. Not only in the temple, or the synagogue.] 

2. Podure. {k-naipovras oaiov; yelpas.) With elevation 
of the hands, implying that the active powers of 
man are directed upwards during prayer (ver. 8). 

[Obs. This posture was used (a) at swearing oaths. Gen. 
xiv. 22: (/3) at benedictions, Lev. ix. 22 ; St. Luke xxiv. 50: 
(7) in prayer, Ps. xxviii. 2 ; xliv. 21 ; Ixiii. 4.] 

3. Moral qualifications and dispositions (ver. 8). 

a. The hands must be 'holy.' Conduct generall}' 
stainless. 

[On oaiovs, instead of oaias, see Winer, Gr. N. T., p. 80. For 
the idea, cf. Ps. xxiv. 4: 'He that hath clean hands.' 
St. James iv. 8 : Kadapiaan xupas koL ayviaan KapSias.^ 

A b. The soul must be free from the influence of 

dpy-q : specially as felt against heathens, since it 

would check prayer for them (ver. 8). 
biaXoyLaixos : discussion (not doubting) carried 

on with others at the cost of charity (ver. 8j. 

B. How women are to conduct themselves in the Church 
of Christ (vv. 9-15). 

[Obs. The Apostle probably intended (waavrcos, ver. 9) to 
construct a parallel statement to ver. 8 on the duties 
of women in public prayer. ^ovKofmi must be supplied 
after uaavrajs. But, instead of -npoaivxicOai, we find 
Koaixuv kavras (ver. g). The character of the sex may 
account for this turn in the Apostle's thought : it was 
useless to discuss their duties in public prayer, until 
they had learnt to dress modestly, and to obey their 
husbands.] 



Chapter ii. 9, 10 



17 



I. Bve^s of Christian women (vv. 9, 10). 

a. by its , kv KaraaToXji ko(tij.lu), comely 
positive apparel, marked 



/ 



b. by its 

negative 

marks 

(ver. 9). 



characteristics ] /xera albovs, by modesty 

(ver. 9). Kol (TMcppoavi'Tis, and moderation. 

I i. ijersonal decorations, such as 
plaitings of the hair, ju,?/ iv 
TrXiyfxacnv. Cf. I St. Pet, 
iii. 3, (jj-irXoKr] TpiyjStv. "??'?'?, 
Is. iii. 24. 

/a. xpw'Ttw. Cf . I St. 

Pet. iii. 3, Trepi- 

^eo-ts \pvcri(av, 

Described^' ' earrings, neck- 

ii. ornaments j^ces, &c. 
put on the7 ^. f^apyapirais. 
person. j y_ l^aTicrp.^ ttoXv- 
reXel Cf. St. 
Mat. xi. 8 ; St. 
Luke vii. 25 
\ (ver. 9). 
by its ruling principle, viz. that which 
becomes women who profess to be devout 
{eTTayyeWopLevaLs Qf.ocri^iiav). This profes- 
sion suggests good works as the best kind 
of adornment (ver. 10). 

[Obs, enayyeWeaOai rrjv Qioai^aav, used like the Lat. 'pro- 
fiteri,' e. g. artem. 6eoaf0eia, devotion, the religious 

life. Heb. r\\n] nsT.] 



i8 The First Epistle to Timothy 



2. Duties of a Christian woman (vv. ii, 12 

I 
positively 



la. She is to be a learner, jxavQaviTio. 



Defined 



i^v 7}<jvyjia. 
h. She is to livevei^ 'namj viroTayrj 

' (ver. 11). 
/«. She may not teach, i.e. in public, 
negatively. 1 6. She may not ^vield authority over 
^ ^ (avOevTeu') man (ver. 12). 

[Obs. I. On this passage, see i Cor. xiv. 34, 35. It would 
seem probable that, at first, women did speak, whether 
in prayer or prophecy, at the assemblies of the faithful, 
I Cor. xiv. 26 ; indeed the Apostle speaks of a 71'f^ 
■npoatvxofitvrj fj irpocprjTfvovaa, in a passage appealed to 
by the Montanists, i Cor. xi. 5. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 
V. 8. But this was inconsistent with woman's natural 
position, and was withdrawn on this ground {cuaxpov, 
I Cor. xiv. 35'^, as well as in deference to the teaching 
of the law. (lb. 34.) In a.d. 398, women were for- 
bidden to teach publicly (Concil. Carth. iv. Can. 99\ 
but allowed to give private instruction to their own sex. 
lb., Can. 12.] 

[Obs. 2. In Mr. Mill's work On the Subjection of Women, p. 85, 
3rd ed., this precept of St. Paul is noticed as an instance 
of the Apostle's ' acceptance of social institutions as he 
found them.' The writer compares the Apostolic pre- 
cepts addressed to slaves, and to the subjects of a military 
despotism, and then urges that Christianity was ' not 
intended to stereotype existing forms of government 
and society.' But the analogy between the question 
before us and slavery or political absolutism fails in 
this, — that the latter are only morbid outgrowths of 
human society, while the position of women, as en- 
joined by the Apostle, finds its reason in the original 
constitution of human nature, which Christianity may 
sanctify, but cannot abrogate.] 

§ Reasons for the Apostolic injunctions respecting the sub- 
jection and silence of women (vv. 13-15). 

Reason 1 (justifying ovbe avdevrdv avbpos, ver. 12), from 
the order in which the sexes ivere created. Adam was 



Chapter li. 11-15 19 

first formed ; then Eve. This priority in creation 

implies a certain superiority (ver. 13). 

[Obs. firKaaOrj. The word found also in Rom. ix. 20. For 
an expansion of the argument, see i Cor. xi. 8-10 ; Gen. 

ii. 22, 23.1 

Reason 2 (justifying bibd(rK€Lv ovk. l-niTpiTiM, ver. 12), from 
the history of the Fall. In the Mosaic account, Adam 
is not said to have been ' deceived ' ; but the word is 
applied to herself by Eve in Gen. iii. 13. Eve icas 
deceived ; Adam rather overpersuaded (ver. 14). 

[Obs. I. The emphasis lies on the words ovk 'iiraTTjOrj iiml 
e^airaTTjOfiffa, By saying that Eve came to be fv irapa- 
Paafi, the Apostle does not deny that this was also 
true of Adam ; nor is there here any thing inconsistent 
with the statement respecting Adam, considered as the 
natural head of the human race, that Si evos avOpwiruv f] 
anapria eh rbv Koff/xov fl(jTJ\de, Rom. v. 12 ; since the sin 
of Eve alone would not have been thus spoken of, 
although it was first in the order of time. The point is 
that Eve's facility in yielding to the deceiver warrants 
the Apostolic rule which forbids a woman to teach.] 

[Obs. 2. OVK TjTraTT)9r] is a statement based on the silence of 
Scripture : Adam is not said to have been deceived. See 
the argument respecting Melchizedek in Heb. vii. 3, 
based on. the silence of Scripture respecting his ancestry 
and parentage. The silence of Scripture is often as full 
of meaning as its assertions. The experience of all ages 
that woman is more easily led away than man, is warranted 
by what is said of the first representative of the sex. 
There is no reason, however, for interposing vpuiros 
before ovk TjwaTrjdr].^ 

Reason 3 (softening (8e) the seeming severity of i and 2), 
from the ennobling hle^sing secured to all Christian 
women through Christ's Birth of a human Mother, 
whereby they will be saved, if they persevere 
J faith, , 

im charity, Uvith (TM(j)poavvri (ver. 15). 

'sanctification,^ 

C 2 



20 The First Epistle to Timothy 



[Obs. I. aai9r)<jiTai agrees with f) ywrj, woman in the abstract, 
as contemplated in Eve. Tliis collective noun is re- 
solved in the Apostle's thought into the individual 
women who compose it, before he reaches fieivuaiv. 
Women must individually persevere, if they are to 
share in the awrrjpia 5ia t^s reKuoyovias. Cf. Winer, 
Gr. N. T., p. 648.] 

[Obs. 2. TTisTiKvoyovias. Tliis is explained (i) of the Christian 
eclucation of children by St. Chrys. and others, so that 
the subject of fieivojcriv is not j? -yvfr} (resolved into its 
concrete equivalents), but to. rifcva, inferred from 
TeKvoyovia. Tlie word reKvoyovia will not bear this, and 
hia with the gen. receives no adequate explanation. 

(2) Of woman's trial in child-hearing with reference to 
Gen. iii. 16 : 'In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children.' 
'What labour is for Adam (Gen. iii. 17), that child- 
bearing is for Eve, viz. painful and restorative.' But 
although this explanation does justice to reKvoyovia, it 
fails even more than ^i) in satisfying 5jd, unless we are 
to suppose that the natural act of giving birth to a child 
is a real satisfaction for sin, and merits salvation. 

(3) Of The Child-hearing of Mary, which gave to the world 
the Author of our Salvation. This satisfies Sid : it give.s 
auO-qaiTai its full force ; and it recognizes the signi- 
ficance of rfjs before Tiwoyovias. Such a reference to 
the glory conferred on woman by the Redeemer's birth 
of His Virgin Mother is natural after the allusion to 
■woman's transgression : and the language is probably 
explained by Gen. iii. 16. The Seed of the woman (not 
of man) was to bruise the serpent'.s head. See the 
excellent note of Bp. Ellicott in loc] 

[Obs. 3. Eemark the importance assigned to aw<ppoavvT] here, 
as in ver. 9, and throughout the Pastoral Epistles. It 
might have been supposed to be included in dyiaajxos : 
but the Apostle mentions it separately, and as a necessary 
accompaniment even of faith and charity.] 



Chapter Hi. i 21 



(2) 

Second Measure for upJiolding Apostolic Doctrine in 
Epliesus. The requirement of a sufficiently high 
moral standard in the Christian Clergy (iii. 1-15). 

I. Standard of qualifications to be insisted on in the case 
of the eTn'cr/coTTOS (iii. I-7). 

[Obs. (r) That in the Apostolic age the word tmWoTros was 
not so restricted as to describe only the modern ' bishop.' 
The word came from the political language of Athens: 
01 vap 'A9r]vaici>v eh rds vtttjkoovs it6\(is (TnaKtxpaaOai to, 
■nap (Kaaroii irf/nroiievoi were kmaKoiroi (Suid.). In the 
language of the Church th« word first designated 
those who have oversight of souls ; and thus it was 
legitimately applied to the 'presbyter.' The title Trpfc- 
PvTfpos came from the synagogue. That these two 
words were used of th« same person is clear from 
Acts XX. 17 sqq., where St. Paul is said to have sent for 
the irpfa^vrepovs of the Church of Ephesus, and to have 
addressed them as iiriaKoiTovs (ver. 28) ; from Phil. i. i, 
where avv iiriffKoirois Kal Siaieovois must mean with the 
presbyters and deacons, unless we suppose that there 
were several ' bishops ' in Philippi, and no ' presbyters ' ; 
and, lastly, from Tit. i. 5, where, after saying that Titus 
had been left in Crete that he might ordain TTpeaPvTepovs 
in every city, the Ajjostle (ver. 6) immediately proceeds 
to enumerate the qualifications to be expected in an 
emaKoiTos, meaning a presbyter. 

(2) The words eniaKonos and TrpeaPvrepos were used of the 
same Church-officer ; the first to suggest his work, as 
having the oversight or cure of souls ; and the second to 
suggest his dignity, as being a man of advanced years, or 
at least having the atfxvoTtjs which comes with age. It 
is remarkable that the word which suggests work, 
not dignity, should have been afterwards appropriated 
by the higher office. 



22 The First Epistle to Timothy 



(3) For although in the Apostolic age the word (iriaKovus 
was used thus inclusively (as indeed diroaToXos, irpea- 
Pvrepos, StaKovos, each had a general as well as a specific 
meaning), the order of men whom we now call 'bishops' 
certainly existed in Apostolic times. When St. Paul here 
instructs Timothy in the qualifications to be required 
in the kmaKo-nos and hiaKovoi, and afterwards warns him 
against laying hands suddenly on any, and bids him look 
to the remuneration, discipline, and punishment of pres- 
byters (i Tim. V. 17-25), it is clear that Timothy is treated 
as one set over all other ministers, and the source of 
ministerial power in Ejihesus. This applies equally 
to the position of Titus in Crete : and it seems probable 
that a nameless Church-officer at Philippi {'^vy^au av^vye, 
Phil. iv. 3) ; Archippus at Colossae or Laodicea (Col. 
iv. 17 ; Pliilemon 2) ; Dioti-ephes, 6 (piXonpoiTevcuv (3 St. John 
9, 10) ; and the presidents or angels of the Seven 
Churches in Asia (Rev. ii. iii. ; Trench, On the Epistles 
to the Seven Churches, p. 56 sqq.), were also ' bishops ' 
in the modern sense, ' The things proper to bishops, 
which might not be common to presbyters, were sin- 
gularity in succeeding, and superiority in ordaining. 
These two the Scriptures and Fathers reserve only to 
bishops: they never communicate them unto presbyters ' 
(Bp. Bilson, Perpetual Government of Chrisfs Church, 
chap. xiii. p. 316). Of these, the faculty of transmitting 
ministerial power, the vis gener-ativa sacerdotii, is really 
that which forms the vital distinction between the 
orders : other prerogative duties — confirmation, conse- 
cration of Churches, and the like — have been assigned 
to the ' Episcopate ' in later ages by the custom of 
the Church. ' Quid enim facit, excepta ordinatione, 
episcopus, quod presbyter non faciat?' St. Jer. Ep. 
ad Evang. cxlvi. 

(4) It is indeed only towards the close of the Apostolic 
age that ' bishops,' in the modern sense, appear as 
a distinct order from the presbyters (still called im- 
aitoiroi) on the one hand, and from the Apostles on the 
other. The fulness of ministerial power was communi- 
cated by our Lord to the Apostles ; and they detached 
from themselves such measures of this power as the 
necessities of the growing Chui-ch from time to time 
required. First they ordained deacons, then presbyters. 
Long after presbyters had been ordained, the office now 



Chapter iii. i 23 

called Episcopal still ' slept in the Apostolate. It was 
the last branch to grow out of the Apostolic stem ' 
(Dollinger, Cfiristenthum und Kirche in der Zeit der 
Grundlegung, iii. i, p. 287, Eng, tr.). But the labours 
of St. Paul, and the approaching departure of the 
Apostles, made it necessary to provide for the con- 
tinuation—not of the Apostolic jurisdiction, but — of the 
Apostolic office. Bishops were first * legates ' of the 
Apostles ; then they had a fixed jurisdiction. A ' bishop ' 
differed from an Apostle, in that his jurisdiction was 
limited and local. In the second century, the language 
of the Church had completely taken its present form ; 
no member of the second order of the Christian Ministry 
was called ImaKoiros. 

A. There is a maxim, current in the Clrarch and endorsed 

by the Apostle, which warrants the requirement of 
a high moral standard in the eTrto-KOTroj. It runs 
thus : ' If any man seeks to obtain the eTrto-KOTj-?? (of 
souls), he really desires to engage in a noble occu- 
pation ' (ver. i). 

[Obs. The maxim here, as at i Tim. i. 15, follows the 
Apostolic approbation, -niarbs 6 Ko-yos. Such a maxim as 
this belongs to a time when the ministerial office was 
one of danger and hardship, and when aspirants to it 
required encouragement from the public opinion of the 
Church. Its sense is entirely missed, when it is mis- 
used to sanction ambitious aims at high ecclesiastical 
position in a settled, wealthy, and powerful Church. 
imaKow-Q here means the oversight of souls, which 
accordingly is described as a Ka\dv epyov. 'Opus non 
dignitatem, laborem non delicias,' says St. Jerome (Ejj. 
ad Ocean. Ixix). In this sense, a man may rightly seek 
after it {dpe-yerai), since this implies no clutching at 
honour or dignity ; what he really desii'es (tmOvnu) is 
an occupation, spiritually and morally honourable.] 

B. Qualifications to be insisted on in one who has over- 

sight of souls (6 em-(7K07ros), in accordance with (ovv) 
the foregoing maxim (vv. 2-7). 



24 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



1. General qualification of the k-nicrKOTios. He must be, 
before men, irreproachable (aveTTiXrjTrTos) (ver. 2). 

[Obs. aveiriKrivros differs from d/xe/xTrro^, as one who does not 
deserve reproach may differ from one who is without 
it. In the same way it is stronger than dv4yK\TjTos, Tit. 
i. 6. It is joined with d(nri\os, i Tim, vi. 14. The rule 
that a defedus bonae famae is a canonical impediment to 
Ordination is based upon this, although the Apostolic 
language is in reality more exacting. The principle 
is stated by Aquinas in loo. : ' Indecens est si repre- 
hensibilis sit reprehensor.' The 'si quis ' before Ordi- 
nation, and the confirmation before Episcopal Con- 
secration, at the present day, are designed to secure 
what this word prescribes.] 



2. Twelve specific qualifications of the eTTLo-KOTTo^, detailing 
the points in which he must be dyeTn'ArjTrros (vv. 2 ^-7). 
He needs 



I. Six positive 
personal , 

characteristics; \ 
namely. 



Freedom 
from three 
gross vices; 



f a. having married, if at all, only once, 
ixias yvvaiKos &vbpa (ver. 2). 

b. being in [sober, vrjcfidKtov (ver. 2). 
his own -j prudent, o-cacppova (ver. 2). 
conduct (orderly, Koapiov (ver. 2). 

c. being r given to hospitality, <pik6- 
by dispo- \ ^evov (ver. 2). 

sition [apt toteach,8t8aKrtKoz;(ver.2). 
I a. not violent over wine, p-ri irdpoivov 
(ver. 3). 

b. not a striker, ju?) TikriKTrjv (ver. 3). 

(equitable, eTrtetK?/(opp.to 6.) (ver. 3). 
not a quarreller, dpax^ov (opp. to a.) 
(ver.- 3). 

c. not a money-lover, d^ikdpyvpov (ver. 3). 



Chapter iii. 2-7 



. A threefold 

relation 

to persons 

around him ; 



a. To Ivh own family. A good master in 
' his own household (toC Ihiov oXkov koAw? 
irpdidTaixivov, ver. 4), and if he have 
children, they must be in subjection 
to him with all gravity of behaviour 
(ver. 4). 

Arg. for a. A minori ad ma jus. If a 
man knows not how to preside over his 
own household, how can he take charge 
of the Church of GoD ? (ver. 5). 

h. To member's of the Church. He must 
not be a recent convert, jxi] v^ocpvTov 
(ver. 6). 

Arg. for h. E consequentiis. The danger 
for a neophyte is, lest, being beclouded 
with pride at his elevation in the 
Church, he fall into the condemnation 
which was passed upon the devil (ver. 6). 

c. To the Jewish « « d h eathen pu hlic. He 
must have a good character even from 
those who look at the Church from 
outside, (:^(£>Oev (ver. 7). 

Arg. fore. E consequentiis. An iiria-KOTros 
who has forfeited respect among the 
Jews and the heathen will (i) incur 
the reproachful criticism of his own 
flock, and so (ii) will be a prey to 
recklessness and despair — that irayU 
Tov biajSoKov out of which only a few 
are ever able to escape (ver. 7). 

[Obs. I. These qualifications of the kiriaKo-nos arc twelve 
in number, if «infi«^ and afxaxov in ver. 3 are regarded 
as virtually implied in (x^ napoivov, jxt) nXrjKT-rjv. Compared 
with the list given in Titus i. 6-9, it contains Kuafuov, 



\ 



26 T/ie First Epistle to Timothy 

fir) ve6(pvTov, and Sei fiaprvpiav KaKfjv «x^"' ^""^ ''"''''' e^ojOe^', 
which are not there repeated ; while /^t) avOdSr}, ixi] 
opyiKov (Tit. i. 7), <pi\aya6ov, h'lKaiov, ocrtov, eyicpaTrj, avre- 
Xofiivov Tov Kara rfjv SiSaxfiv marov \6yov (ibid. 8, 9), do 
not appear in the present passage. Each list was drawn 
up in view of the needs of the local Church ; and neither 
can be regarded as an exhaustive account of the moml 
and spiritual characteristics of the tma/coiros. The 
negative provisions, /^^ irdpoivov, /xfj ttXtikttjv, are probably 
to be accounted for by local circumstances of which the 
traces have been lost. It must be remembered that 
modern refinement leads us to lay more stress upon 
offences of this kind than would have been natural at 
that day, while we condone very easily other sins which 
were then regarded by Christians with gi-eat severity.] 

[Obs. 2. The eniffKOTTos must have been married, if at all, 
only once. That this is the true sense of fj.tds ywai- 
nds dvSpa appears from v. 9, where a widow who is 
admitted to the ecclesiastical order of widows is re- 
quired to be kvus dvSpus yvvTj, i.e. univira, married to 
a single husband. Unless polyandry was sanctioned in 
other widows, or in Christian women generally, this 
must be the meaning of evus dvSpoi yvv-q, and it is strictly 
analogous to [iids ywaiicos dvSpa, which prohibits suc- 
cessive, not sinudtaneous polygamy. In other Christians 
second marriages were not absolutely forbidden by the 
Apostle, although they were discouraged ; they were 
recommended, if people ovk kyKpaTevovrai, 1 Cor. vii. 9 ; 
and, in the case of young widows, so as pLr)5t/xiav dtpopfirjv 
Si56i'ai Tw dvTiKfiixevq), I Tim. V. 14. But since the 
emaKonos must be iyKpaTTjs (Tit. i. 8), he must have 
married only once. The pure ideal of marriage, as con- 
sisting in the complete and reciprocal surrender of 
two persons to each other (St. Mat. xix. 4 sqq.), so as 
to form ' one flesh ' — the ideal which suggests the union 
of Christ and His Church in Eph. v. 32 — is broken in 
upon by a second marriage ; but the Ministers of the 
Church may be exjiected to exhibit married life in their 
own cases according to its original and tyj^ical law. 
The later condemnation of a second marriage, as eviTpfirfjs 
fioixfia. (Athenagoras, Legatio pro Chnstianis, c. 33), goes 
beyond the Apostolic teaching ; as does the Montanistic 
language of Tertullian, cle Monogamia, c. 12. The true 
estimate of a second marriage is expressed by Clement 
Alex. Strom, in, c. 12 : ov yap KfKwKvrai npos tov vopLov, 



Chapter lii. 2-7 27 

oh iTXrjpoi Si TTJs Kara to tvayytXiov TroXiTsms rfiv Kar 
emraaiv Tf\eiuTi]Ta. On the consideration duo t<> lay 
Christians who have married again, see St. Epiphanius, 
Haer. 48 ; St. Cyril Jerus. Catech. iv. 26. That 'digami ' 
were excluded from all orders of the Ministry in the 
ancient Church, cf. Const. Aposi. vi. 17 ; Origen, Ilo^n. 17, 
in Luc. ; Tertullian, de Exhort. Castit. c. 7 ; St. Augustine, 
de Bono Co^ijug. c. 18 ; St. Jerome, Ep. ad Agemcl,. 
cxxiii. 6. 
Other interpretations of /^i5? ywaiKos dVSpa are— 
(i) ' The ImaKOTtos must he a mairied man,' bti and -yui/aiw.'s 
being considered the emphatic words. But this (a) ignores 
/xias ; (0) is quite irreconcileable with i Cor. vii. 7 ; 
cf. St. Jer. adv. Jovinian., i. c. 34, Si juxta sententiani 
Apostoli non erunt episcopi nisi mariti, ipse apostolus 
episcopus esse non debuit ; and (7) would suggest— 
with equal reason — that he must have children (cf. 
ver. 4), because if he has them, the Apostle gives rules 
respecting them. The antithesis of i^ids is not 'none,' 
but 'two' or 'many.' 

(2) {generally.) '■The (TriaKo-nos must he united to ovlij one 
woman.' In other words, he must not fall below the 
conventional morality of all Christian laymen. This 
surely would have been more clearly expressed by a'') 
tlvai jxotxov. 

(3) 'TJie imaKOTTos must after his conversion have been free from 
{simultaneous) polygamy.' But such polygamy is as much 
opposed to the Law of Christ as murder or stealing, and 
there is no historical proof of Theodoret's assertion (in 
loc.) that in the first age some Christian converts had 
two or more wives. 

(4) ^The emaKOTTos must not have been a {simultaneous) poly 
gamist before his conversion.' Such a meaning is indistinctly 
expressed by the language ; but it is open to the further 
objection that polygamy had disappeared among the 
Jews of the Apostolic age, and was considered infamous 
among the Greeks and Romans (Bollinger, Heid. und 
Judenth., Eng. tr., vol. ii. pp. 253, 339). 

(5) ' The itriaicoiros must not have ''married" a second icife after 
divorce.' That divorce for frivolous reasons was common 
is certain : the cases of Cicero and Jo.sephus are in point. 
See Watson, Cicero's Letters, p. 395 (2nd ed.) ; Dion Cass, 
xlvi. 18 ; Plut. Cic. xli ; Joseph. Vda, Ixxv. But on this 
very subject the Christian LaAV had introduced a new 



28 The First Epistle to Timothy 



and higher standard for all (St. Mat. v. 32 ; xix. 9 ; 
St. Mark x. 11, 12; St. Luke xvi. 18); and St. Paul's 
own language in i Cor. vii. 10 sqq. is inconsistent with 
the sense suggested. On this subject see Bp. EUicott 
in loc. 
The words \Jnas -yvvaiKos avSpa are inconsistent with any 
Church-discipline which does not aUoiv a married Clergy. 
The Eastern Church, which obliges presbyters in charge 
of parishes to marry, and allows only celibates to become 
bishops, must restrict the word imaKoiros in this chapter 
to the sense of presbyter.] 

[Obs. 3. Of the three words (ver. 2) describing ^JersowaZ habits, 
i'r](pa\ioi is literally ' abstemious in the use of wine ' 
(Joseph. Ant. iii. 12. 2\ from v-qipcj : but the N. T. use 
of this verb (i Thess. v. 6, 8 ; 2 Tim. iv. 5 ; i St. Pet. 
i. T3 ; V. 8), which is always tropical, 'non perturbato 
sed bene composite animo sum,' may fairly suggest 
a similar sense to the adjective in this passage, as the 
literal sense is provided for in fif) irapoivov (ver. 3). Thus 
it would mean, 'a man of watchful, calm, unimpassioned 
mind,' collected, unexcitable. autppcav is a result of 
vrjcpaXios : the aw<ppwv is self-controlled under all circum- 
stances. aai(ppocrvvr) is an inward habit ; but it expresses 
itself in the order and regularity of outward life, and 
thus the eiriaKcTTos is KucTfjuos, attentive to all matters of 
order and propriety, dress, behaviour, and the like, 
which bear upon his office, and express the spirit which 
animates it. He is ' vir compositus et ordinatus ' 
(Seneca, de Vita Beata, c. 8). Cf. i Tim. ii. g.] 

[Obs. 4. The iniaKonos (ver. 2) must be (f)i\u^(vos (Tit. i. 8), 
as must widows (i Tim. v. 10), and all Christians (Rom. 
xii. 13 ; Heb. xiii. 2 ; i St. Pet. iv. 9 ; 3 St. John 5). On 
the hospitality of the Primitive Church, see TertuUian, 
Aijolog. c. 39 : and the involuntary witness of Lucian, de 
Mmie Pereyrmi, cc. xiii, xiv. The i-nlaKo-nos must also be 
Si5a/cT(«os, or as is more fully expressed in Tit. i. 9, 
Sui/aroj vapaKa\(iv iv rrj 5i5a(TKa\ia ry iiyiaivovari Kai rols 
dyrtKiyovTas eXfyx^LV. Aptitude for teaching, whether 
in public or in private, is required both for the in- 
struction of the faithful, and the refutation of eiror. 
Cf. Eph. iv. II sqq.] 

£Obs. 5. The ImaKoiros must keep clear of three gross vices — 
indulgence in wine, anger, and avarice (ver. 3). (a) /ht) 
■napoivov means more than tx-q o'ivai ttoWw irpoaixovTas 



Chapter iii. 2-7 29 



(ver. 8) ; or even than \i}\ oLvw -noWw StSovXw/xh'as, Tit. 
ii. 3. Here -napoivos has the metaphorical sense of 
'violent over wine.' St. Chrys. in loc. : oii rbv niOvaov 
ivravOa (prjaiv, dXAci tov v^ptaTrjy, rbv av9a5rj. Hesyehius 
explains ■napoiv'ia as 17 (k tov oivov v^pii. Cf. Prov. xxiii. 
29, 30. (/3) fx'f) ir\T]KTr]v. The (ma/coiro^ is a servant of 
Him who ' when He was reviled, reviled not again ; 
when He suffered, He threatened not.' For the deposi- 
tion of bishops or presbyters or deacons who struck the 
faithful, see Can. Apost. 26. iinetKrj and aixaxov are the 
positive side of the two preceding negative qualifications. 
fif) alaxpoKepSfj is insufficiently supported. (7) d<pi\ap- 
yvpov, cf. Tit. i. 7 ; r St. Pet. v. 2 ; i Tim. vi. 10 ; Tit. 
i. II ; 2 St. Pet. ii. 3 ; St. Jude 11 ; Const. Apostol. ii. 6 ; 
Ep. St. Polycarp, 6.] 

[Obs. 6. Relation of the ImaKoiros to his own family (vv. 4, 5). 
The smaller circle of his own fiinaily {tov ISiov oikov) 
will test a man's capacity for ruling the Church of God. 
The emphasis lies on Iv vvoTayrj, not on reKva exofra. 
If the emaKOTTos has children, they must live in sub- 
mission. /xtTa TTCKTTjs (TefxvoTTjTos dcpends not on wpoiard- 
fievov or e'xovTa, but on TiKva. The submissiveness of the 
children must be accompanied by all propriety of de- 
portment (ii. 2). This imi^lies much moi-e than ^^ Iv 
KaTTjyopiq daajTias, Tit. i. 6. The arg. a minori ad majus 
(ver. 5) treats the eiricrKoiros as an olKofo/xos, and the 
Church as a family of brethren (olicos &(ov, cf. ver. 15) 
who are under his fatherly care. firifxtKriaeTai is a fut. 
of moral capacity. Cf. Const. Apost. ii. 2.] 

[Obs. 7. Eolation of the emWoTroj to the faithful generally 
(ver. 6). He must not be newly-baptized, and so newly- 
planted into Christ. See Rom. vi. 5 ; xi. 17; i Cor. iii. 6. 
vfofvTos paraphrased by St. Chrys. vfonaTrjxrjTo?: by 
Cone. Laod. Can. 3, ■np6a<paTov (pwrtaOfis : by Theoiihylact, 
veo^avTiaTos. Against the ordination of recent converts 
from heathenism, see Can. Apost. 80. Kpi/^a tov dia06Kov, 
gen. obj.; the condemnation passed upon the devil: not 
a gen. subj. because 'diabolus potest opprobrium inferre, 
judicium inferre non potest.' See Huther in loc. Cf. 
2 St. Pet. ii. 4; St. Jude 6.] 

[Obs. 8. Relation of the imaKoiros to the public outside the 
Church (ver. 7). 01 'i^coOfv for the more common form 
ol €£(u, I Cor. V. 12, 13 ; Col. iv. 5 ; i Thess. iv. 12 (formed 
on the Jewish D^JIiiTin applied to the heathen), in con- 



30 TJie First Epistle to Timothy 



ti'ast to the oIkuol t^s trianois (^Gal. vi. lo). For 7:0715 
ToO Zia^oKov {gen. sub., the trap of despair which the 
devil sets), see 2 Tim. ii. 26 ; i Tim. vi. 9. The devil is, 
in this figure, a hunter of sou's. On his rule over the 
unbelieving world, see St. John xvi. i r ; Eph. ii. 2 ; 
vi 12 ; Col. i. 13 : on his activity in promoting error, 
2 Thess. ii. 9, 10. The relation to the Faith which 
results from falling into the 7^71? rod SiapoKov is 
expressed by vavajeiv irepl Trjv manv (i. 19), anoarrivai 
rris -niariws (iv, i), aTroTrXavaaOai a-no t^s manais (vi. 10). 
Cf. I Tim. V. 15 ; St. Luke xxii. 31. irvivnara TrKdva, 
I Tim. iv. I.] 

II. Standard of qualifications to be insisted on in the ease 
of the bicLKovoL (vv. 8-13). 

[Obs. I. Smkovos, properly a server. The earliest form of 
the oiRce is discoverable in Acts v. 6, 10, where the 
i/(WT€pot and vtaviaKoi who buried the dead are not 
simply 'young men,' but, as the article suggests, offi- 
cials devoted to this particular work. The word vfurepot 
con-esponds to D''"}V3, just as trpia^vrtpoi to CJpT: but 
in the former case contact with the Hellenists led at 
an early date to the substitution of the Greek title 
biaKovoi. That the viwrtpoi already discharged among 
the Jewish Christians the same duties arising out of the 
community of goods as the seven 5i6.kovoi were ordained 
to render to the Hellenistic widows (Acts vi. 3-6), is 
more than probable ; but that these duties were not 
merely those of relieving-officers, entrusted with the 
public funds of the Church, is clear from the Apostolic 
requirement that candidates for the office should be 
men TrXr^peis Tlvev/xaro^ Kal aotpias (Acts vi. 3), from their 
ordination by prayer and imposition of hands (Acts 
vi. 6), and from the spiritual character of St. Stephen's 
work among the people (Acts vi. 8, 10). We find diaKovoi 
in Philippi (Phil. i. i) as in Ephesus, where there was 
no community of goods ; although the words SiaKovia, 
SiaieoveTv, are constantly used in a general sense of works 
of mercy to the poor i^Eom. xv. 25 ; 2 Cor. viii. 19 ; Heb. 
vi. 10). The Diaconal office may be alluded to in Rom. 
xii. 7; I Cor. xii. 28 ; i St. Pet. iv. 11. The work of the 
almoner became generally an dvri\r}ipis (i Cor. xii. 28) 
to the presbyter ; and it is possible that from the first 
the duty of Smkovuv Tpa-ni^ais (Acts vi. 2) included 



Cliapter ili. 8, 9 



3^ 



assistance at the saeramental rpaviCp. ^vaTtHrj. On tlio 
duties of Deacons, see Bingham, Antiquities, ii. 20. i.l 
[Obs. 2. The Apostle speaks of one fmcrKonos (vei\ 2), but of 
several Sicikovol (ver. 8). This has been held to imply 
that under the former term he was not thinking of 
a presbyter, but of a 'bishop'; but it is more probabb' 
that each presbyter was in some sense a centre of 
Church life, and was attended, by several deacons. At 
Phil. i. I, emcTKunoi^ (jjhn-.) is joined with SiaKuvuts.^ 

§ In the SttiKOi^ot must be considered — (vv. 8-13). 

/ i. j)Os'dLvely, in marked seri- 
I ousness of deportment, o-e/^- 
vovs (ver. 8). 



from 



T. Their 
personal 
character "^ 
(vv.8,9) 



a. as viewed 
in its out- 
ward mani-^ ii- negatively, 
festations in freedom 

from three 
vices, viz. 



cerity, \xii bi- 

Ao'yoi;s(ver.8). 

/3. from inel )ri- 

ety, /U.7; OLIO) 

TToAAco TTporri- 

XovTas{xer.8). 
y. from dis- 
honourable 
money - get- 
ting, /x/; 
\ al(r)(^pOKepbels 



h. as existing 
within the 
soul which 



(ver. 8). 

/ i. (intellectually) holds the 
true fxv(TTi']pLov TTjs Tn'orecoj, the 
long-hidden but now revealed 
Truth, which faith appre- 
hends (ver. 9). 
ii. (morally) clings to a pure 
conscience, as the only at- 
mosphere in which faith will 

\ live (ver. 9). 



32 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



2. Their 
exercise of 
their office 
(StaKOi^etro)- 
o-az;), which 
requires 
(v. lo) 



i. a previous testing, or examination, at the 
hands of Timothy (boKLixa(ia6(o(rav -npStTov) 
(ver. lo). 

ii. a satisfactory result of this. They must 
be obviously aviyKk^rot. (ver. lo). 



a. of grave deport- 



3- 



Tlieir 
family 
circum- 
stances 
(vv. 11,12) 
and so 



a. their wives 
must be 



i. in point 

of 
character 






h. their 
children 

c. their 
\ households 



4. Their prospects of use- 
fulness (which warrant 
{yap) the foregoing rules).-/ 
The KakSiS bLaKovrjcravTes 
win for themselves 



ment, aep.vd'i (ver. 
II). 
(3. not detractors, 
1X1] biajBokovi (ver. 

II)- 
y. sober in mind 

and body, vrjcpa- 

Aiou? (ver. i r). 

b. faithful in all 
matters, Tncrras ^v 
iraa-i (ver. 11), 
^A deacon may be 

married only once, 

fjiias yvvaiKos avr\p 

(ver. 12). 

must be well {Kokdi) presided 
over in the case of each 
bioLKovos (ver. 12). 

i. an honourable step in the 
ministry of the Church, viz. 
the presbyterate {[3a6p.bv 
KaXov) (ver. 13). 

ii. great freedom (Trapprjcriav) in 
prayer and preaching; — the 
product of a faith which lives 
i in Christ (ver. 13). 



ii. as to 
number. 



Chapter iii. 10-13 33 

[Obs. I. Of the personal characteristics of the hiaKovoi (ver. 
8, 9). ^i) biKo-^ovs means, not insincerelj- using different 
hingiiage to different people. The ditticult duties of the 
bidKovoi, as distributers of the Church funds among 
many rival claimants, might involve a temptation to 
this sin. SiXoyoi is a air. Key. ; cf. Ep. Polycarp 5. It 
corresponds to D^OSK' C'''N , homo duplex ; cf. Si^Aojao-o?, 
Prov. xi. 13 ; Ecclus. v. 9, 14 ; vi. i ; and Si'^vx"^' S*- James 
iv. 8. The expression n^ aiffxpofctpSris occur only here and 
at Tit. i. 7 ; but cf. i St. Pet. v. 2, eincrKoiTovvTes /x^ alaxpo- 
KfpSais, and Tit. i. ri, where the baneful activity of the 
anti-Apostolical teachers in Crete is said to be aiaxpo^ 
KtpSovs x"/"''- The danger of making illicit gains out 
of the money which passed through their hands as 
almoners of the Chvirch funds made this caution 
necessary in the case of diaKovoi.'] 

[Obs. 2. The SiaKovoi must hold (i) the true faith, (2) in 
a life of moral sincerity. The fivcTTrjpiov rfjs ■nianwi 
(ver. 9\ the Truth, hidden for long ages but now 
revealed, and apprehended by faith, is also called 
fivaTT/piov rov evayyiKiov, Eph. vi. 19 ; fivoTripiov tov Xpiff- 
Tov, Col. iv. 3 ; fjLvarrjpiov 0€ov, i Cor. iv. i ; juiaTTjpiov ttjs 
^aaiKfias Tuiv ovpavwv, St. Mat. xiii. 11. In these expres- 
sions the gen. is appositional, as describing the contents 
of the pLvaTTjpiov : but /jLvar-qpiov rijs irlanws is apparently 
like iivar-qpiov tijs eucrejSeias (ver. 16), a gen. subj. This 
long-hidden Truth on which faith and piety feed is 
called simply nvcrrripiov in Rom. xvi. 25 ; Eph. i. 9 ; iii. 4. 
And this Revelation of God in Christ, or Christian 
Doctrine, must be held ev KaOapS. awei^-qati, because 
Christian Faith and Life are intimately related to each 
other ; practical atheism leads to theoretical, Rom. i. 21.] 

[Obs. 3. The proving or examination (ver. 10, SoKipia^ia- 
6aiaav) of the future Siclkovoi has reference to the 
previously named characteristics which are required 
of them. They would be accepted, if dvljKXrjToi, i.e. 
not liable to any public charge, because ' de occultis 
ecclesia non judicat.' The verb SiaKoyetv is used of the 
exercise of a deacon's office only here, and in ver. 13, 
and r St. Pet. iv. 11.] 

[Obs. 4. The yvvaiKts (ver. 11) are probably the wives of the 
deacons. St. Chrys. indeed understands them to mean 
deaconesses (the XW"' of chap, v.) to whom Phoebe 
belonged, Rom. xvi. i. The binding particle waavrcus, 

D 



34 The First Epistle to Timothy 

as introducing a new category (cf. ver. 8), and the 
expression irtcrras \v vdmv, if pressed, may be thought 
to favour this opinion. But, on the other hand, the 
position of the verse, in the middle of the discussion 
on the StaKovoi, makes it probable that the wives of 
the deacons are referred to, as introducing the con- 
dition i^ids 'ywaiKos avSpfs. A deacon's wife would 
naturally help her husband in care for the sick and 
poor, and she needed very similar moral qualifications 
to his. 5ia^6\ovs, as an adjective only in 2 Tim. iii. 3 ; 
Tit. ii. 3.] 

[Obs. 5. The words paOf^uv Ka\6v (ver. 13) are best explained 
of an honourable step in the Christian Ministry, viz. 
the presbyterate. The word PaO/ios (from obsol. PAu, 
cf. ffTafffios), properly a step, occurs in Lucian, Appian, 
&c. (Lob. Phryn. p. 324). (il Theodoret understands it 
of eternal blessedness, in accordance with our Lord's words 
em iroWa/y ae KaraaT-qau, St. Mat. xxv. 21 ; cf. vi. 19. 
To this the following words itoKK^v itapp-qaiav k.t.k. 
are an objection. (2) St. Chrys. connects 0a$fi6v with 
ev mffrei, understanding it to mean a step in the life 
of the soul. But (3) the 'gradus presbyteratus ' har- 
monizes best with the context ; and Padjxdv Ka\uv 
would correspond to naXov ipyov (iii. i), and appro- 
priately follow KaKuis SiaieovrjaavTfs. There is no suffi- 
cient ground for saying that, if this had been the 
Apostle's meaning, he must have written Kpi'nTova or 
vip-qXoTepov for KaXov. And ■neptiroieiadai is used instead 
of etravaPaivdv with PaOfiov, because a word is wanted 
which will also describe the acquisition of -napprjaiav. 
In later ecclesiastical Greek this use of PaOnos is common. 
Eus. H.E. iii. 21 ; Cone. Eph. Can. i, &c.] 

§ Design of the foregoing (iii. 1-3) instructions respecting 
the iTTtaKOTTos and the biaKovoi [Tavrd aoi ypdcpa}) 
(vv. 14, 15). 

1. They are written in spite of the Apostle's hope (iXTriCcov) 
to come to Ephesus soon {iv raxei) (ver. 14). 

2. But, in the event of his delay, they are intended to 
teach Timothy how to conduct himself in the ' House- 
hold of God' or Church (ver. 15). 



Chapter iii. 14, 15 35 

3. (Reason, r\ris, ver. 15, for 2.) Greatness of the otKos- 
©eou in which Timothy is olKov6\i.os. This House of 
God is 
a. (in itself) the e/CKATjo-ta (-"^i"^) ©eoS Cfiivros. Not 
a material building, but a convocation of souls. 
Not dedicated to a dead idol, but inhabited by the 
ever-living Being (ver. 15). 
h. (in its relation to the Truth.) It is the 

^ i. pillar (orvAos) of the Truth. The Church stands 
from age to age, upholding the Truth before the 
eyes of men (ver. 15). 
ii. hcibis (kbpaicofxa) of the Truth. The Truth rests 
upon the Church as on the fundamental fact 
which by its existence implies the Truth that 
created it (ver. 15). 

[Obs. I. Before eXvi^oiv understand Kaiirep. Timothy was 
still a ' legate,' so to call him, of the Apostle : his juris- 
diction became fixed at a later date.] 

[Obs. 2. oIkos Qeov used of the Christian Church in Heb. 
X. 21 ; I St. Pet. iv. 17. The Church is also called of/cos 
XptaTov, Heb. iii. 6 ; oTkos -irvivixariKos, i St. Pet. ii. 5. 
Cf. ixejdXrj oiKia, 2 Tim. ii. 20. The name D^n3s~n''3 or 
nin^TT'B is applied in the 0. T. to the scene of God's 
manifestation of Himself to Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 17) ; to 
the Mosaic tabernacle (Ex. xxiii. 19 ; xxxiv. 26 ; Deut. 
xxiii. 18) ; and to Solomon's temple (i Kings vi. 37, &c.) : 
and Israel itself is nin^"n''3 (Hos. viii. i. Cf. ix. 8, 15). 
St. Paul often employs this figure ; i Cor. iii. 9, 16 ; 
2 Cor. vi. 16 ; Ejjh. ii. 22. Compare 6ffj.f\ios tov Qeov, 
2 Tim. ii. 19 : @€ov oIkoBohtj, i Cor. iii. 9 : KaToiKTjTrjpiov 
TOV Qeov, Eph. ii. 22.] 

[Obs. 3. (KKX-qaia, (i) used of a Greek popular assembly 
summoned for purposes of deliberation. Thuc. i. 32 ; 
Polyb. V. 74, &c. Cf. Acts xix. 39. (2) Acquires a special 
sense in the N. T. from being frequently employed by 
the LXX. to translate /Hp, the assembly of the peoj^le of 
Israel, Judg. xxi. 8 ; i Chion. xxix. i ; as summoned for 
sacred purposes, Deut. xxxi. 30 ; Josh. viii. 35 : cf. also 

D a 



36 The First Epistle to Timothy 



Acts vii. 38 ; Heb. ii. 12. Hence it means (3) the whole 
body of Christians, in covenant relation with Christ 
their head, St. Mat. xvi. 18 ; i Cor. xii. 28 ; Eph. i. 22 ; 
iii. 10 ; V. 23 ; Phil. iii. 6 ; Col. i. 18, 24 : and is said to 
be TOW ©cov. Acts xx. 28 ; Gal. i. 13 ; i Cor. xv. 9 ; who 
is here called fwj'Tos in tacit opposition to the vticpois 
tlSijKois of heathen art or heathen thought, perhaps 
especially to Artemis of Ephesus. The Church is no 
mere human society : the living God founded it, and it 
is His ' dwelling.'] 
[Obs. 4. Relation of the Church towards the Truth. It 
is ffTvXos TTJs dXyeeiai : the truth is upheld by it, so 
as to catch the eyes of men. arvKos = TllSy , a column, 
used of saintly individuals, Rev. x. i ; Gal. ii. 9. The 
Church is also tSpaiajfia (stabilimentum) r^s dKrj$fias 
(cf. 6ene\ios, 2 Tim. ii. 19) ; it is a guarantee of the per- 
manence of the Truth among men. Bp. Butler, Analogij, 
part ii. c. i : ' Had Moses and the Prophets, Christ and 
His Apostles, only taught, and by miracles proved 
Religion to their contemporaries, the benefit of their 
instructions would have reached but to a small part 
of mankind. Christianity must have been, in a great 
degree, sunk and forgot in a very few ages. To prevent 
this appears to have been one reason why a visible 
Church was instituted : to be like a city upon a hill, 
a standing memorial of the duty which we owe to 
our Maker ; to call men continually, both by example 
and instruction, to attend to it, and, by the form of 
Religion ever before their eyes, remind them of the 
reality ; to be the repository of the oracles of God.* 
Bp. Ellicott in loc. : 'Were there no Church, there 
would be no witness, no guardian of archives, no basis, 
nothing whereon acknowledged truth could rest.' On 
the abrupt, artificial, and indefensible construction, 
whereby ctvKos Koi tZpaiwjjixj. have been sometimes con- 
nected with the clause which follows instead of that 
which precedes, see Ellicott and De Wette in loc] 
[Obs. 5. This reference to the vocation and office of the 
Church, as the upholder and historical basis of Divine 
Truth among men, justifies retrospectively the Apostle's 
directions respecting the character of the Church's 
ministers, while it serves to introduce a statement of 
the Truth which Timothy was bound to inculcate at 
Ephesus, and which the new teachers contradicted. 
Thus we arrive at] 



Chapter iii. i6 37 

(3) 
Third Measure for upholding Apostolic Bocfrine in 
Ephesus. Earnest Inculcation of the True Faith 
(iii. i6-iv. 11). 

I. The Revealed Truth on which Christian devotion is 
sustained [\xvaTiipiov ttjs evae^eiu'i) is confessedly of 
momentous import. It may be concisely stated in the 
famihar words of a Christian hymn : 

OS [0€oj] — [Ji.€ya ixvcrrripiov — 
e(pav€p(i)dr] f.v aapKL, 
(bLKaicadrj (V TTv^vp-aTi, 

bi(f)6rj ayyikoLS, 
(KYjpvxdr] kv edv€(nv, 
(7ncrT€vd-q (v KocrjjLti), 

avehrjipdrj ez; bo^r] (ver. i6). 

[Who] was 
Manifested [to our senses] in His Human form, 
Justified [to our faith] in His Eternal Godhead, 
Seen by angels [as never ere He took flesh], 
Heralded [l)y Apostles] among the Gentile peoples, 
Believed on in a [corrupt and faithless] world. 
Taken up [at His Ascension, so as to be] in glory 

(ver. 16). 

[Obs. I. On the vexed question between &(6s and os in 
ver. 16, see the exhaustive statement of the evidence in 
Scrivener's Criticism of the N. T. pp. 637-642 f3rd ed.). 
Scrivener's hesitating conclusion is, that ' Oeos of the more 
recent many MSS. must yield place to os of the ancient 
few.' OS is the more difficult reading. If it be the 
correct one, the sense is not really modified. The 
Preexistence of the Subject of these lines lies in 
f<pavfpw9r]. The N. T. knows of only One Being Who 



38 The First Epistle to Timothy 

was manifested in human form, preached among the 
heathen, taken up in glory — the Only-begotten Son.] 

[Obs. 2. Ephesus, or at any rate Asia Minor, would seem 
to have been an early home of Christian hymnology. 
The Ephesians were bidden to use not merely psalms, 
but vyivoi and oJSai wuevfxaTiKai, Eph. v. 19. Cf. Col. 
iii. 16. St. Paul quotes three lines of a Christian hymn 
at Eph. V. 14. The Apocalypse of St. John abounds in 
traces of early Christian hymnology. Such early hymns 
were largely devoted to celebrate the Divinity of Christ. 
In his report to the Emperor Trajan, the younger 
Pliny says that the Bithynian Christians ' essent 
soliti stato die ante lucem convenire, carmenque Christo 
quasi Deo dicere secum invicem.' Plin. Epist. x. 97. And 
according to an early writer quoted by Eusebius {H. E. 
v. 28), ipaK/xol di oaoi koL w^ai d5e\(pwv an dpx^^ i'to 
■niaruiv ypacpflaai rbv Xofov tov ©foC tov XpiaTov v/xvovcri 
OfoKoyovvTfs. The present fragment may have belonged 
to one such composition.] 

[Obs. 3. In this quotation there are three pairs of contrasts 
corresponding to each couplet : iv aapKi — iv irvev/xan, 
dyyfKots — eOvecnv, iv Koap-cp — iv Z6^ri. (i) The verb 
(pavtpovaOai is used of the Incarnation in i St. John 
i. 2 ; iii. 5 : perhaps ev aapKi is added by way of caution 
against incipient Docetism. In eSiKaiwOrj iv TrvtvpaTi, 
SiKaiovffOai is used as at St. Mat. xi. 19 ; St. Luke vii. 35, 
in the sense of to be proved, verified, and so justified ; 
while vvtvpia, in this contrast to odp^, means the Divine 
Nature of Jesus Christ, as at Rom. i. 4 ; Heb. ix. 14. 
Cf. St. John iv. 24, irvevpa 6 Qeos. (2) uKpO-r] dyytkois 
can hardly refer (a) to the angelic appearances to our 
Lord (St. Mat. iv. 11; St. Luke xxii. 43), as this would 
have been otherwise expressed ; or {0) to the sight of 
our Saviour in His glorified manhood after His Ascen- 
sion ; so well as (7) to the unveiling of Divine Wisdom 
and Goodness, which was made even to the Angels by 
the Incarnation of Christ. Observe the antithesis to 
fierjpvxOrj iv tOvtaiv, and compare i St. Pet. i. 12 with 
Eph. iii. 10.] 

II. Apostasy from this faith predicted by the Holy Spirit 
speaking through the Christian ' prophets ' (iv. 1-3 a). 

I, Character of the prediction. It is made prjTQ^, in 
express terms (iv. i a). 



A 



Chapter iv. 1-3 39 

2. Substance of the prediction. ' Some (rti/es) in the latter 
times will apostatize from the faith ' (ver. i a). 

.a. Unseen superhuman agencies in this Apostasy-. 
Deceiving spirits, to whom attention will be 
given ; — ' doctrines taught by devils ' (ver. i h). 

jb. Visible and human instruments of {hj this Apo- 
stasy. The pretended holiness {v-noKpta-i.'i) of 
speakers of lies, whose own (ihCav) consciences 
are penally cauterized by long habits of sin 
(ver. 2). 

3. Specific errors, which will be propagated by the false 
teachers in this Apostasy (ver. 3 a). 

( a. Prohibition of marriage (ver. 3 a). 
I b. Enforced abstinence from certain kinds of food 
(ver. 3 a). 

[Obs. I. The Apostasy predicted by the Holy Spirit speaking 
through Christians who had the gift of predictive pro- 
phecy is in tragic contrast (5f, iv. i) with the fxvffTTjpioi' 
T^y evaePdas (iii. i6). Special revelations respecting the 
future were made to St. Paul himself by the Holy Spirit 
(2 Thess. ii. 3 sqq. ; Acts xx. 22 sqq.) : and it is doubtful 
whether this discovery was vouchsafed to himself, or 
to others. The Apostasy Avill occur If varipois Kaipots, 
in times future to the speaker, but not definitely taxdrats 
■quipais, 2 Tim. iii. i ; Kaipw iaxa-Tcv, i St. Pet. i. 5 ; 2 St. Pet. 
iii. 3 ; St. .Jude 18 ; i.e. the period preceding the second 
coming of Christ. It is thei'efore inaccurate to say, 
with Baur {Pastor albriefe, pp. 23, 35), that in such pro- 
phecies we trace the consciousness of a writer describing 
a state of things altogether future to St. Paul, although 
present to himself. The jjartial Apostasy which exists 
(r Tim. i. 6 sqq., 19, 20) is the beginning of the greater 
Apostasy in the coming time.] 

[Obs. 2. The invisible authors of the predicted error are 
deceiving spirits, -irvfvjxaTa irXdva, baip.6via. Cf. Ej)h. ii. 2 ; 
vi. 12 ; r St. John iv. 6. hihaOKaXiai Satfioi'laiv {geit. 
subj.) are doctrines taught by devils. These doctrines 
are propagated through («»') the hypocrisy of untruthful 



40 The First Epistle to Timothy 



men, whose own consciences have been branded by 
deep sin, while they appear as the advocates of a lolty 
asceticism. The /cavTrjpia^fiv was not merely the infliction 
of a property-mark on slaves ; it was a penal brand 
on transgressors. Theophylact says that these teachers 
carried within them tovs Kavrfipas tov pvnapov ^iov. 
Theodoret describes their case, but less accurately, as 
follows : K(KavT7]ptacrp(vovs . . . avroi/s KeKKijKf, tjjc ea\aTr]v 
avToiv dvaKyrjaiav SiSaaKoiv 6 yap tov KavTrjpos toitos vtKpai- 
6ih TTjv TrpoTepav aiaOrjaiv dnoPaWfi. 

[Obs. 3. The two pseudo-ascetic precepts selected, we may 
presume, from among a large number of errors, practical 
and speculative, certainly characterized, in an exagge- 
rated degree, the Gnosticism of the second century. 
Marriage was then forbidden, on the ground that nature 
and matter were the work of the Demiurgus, and that 
it was undesirable tov k6<xp.ov vno tov orjfiiovpyov yev6- 
nfvov avijnrXrjpovu, Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 3. And 
St. Irenaeus says that the Eneratite disciples of 
Saturninus and Marcion dyapiiav (Ktfpv^av, ddeTovfTts ttjv 
dpxaiav irXdaiv tov Qfov, Ham: i. 28. The motive of the 
' sanctior eibus ' of Marcion (Tert. adv. Mar. i. 14) was 
similar. But the Essenes were already known by their 
ydp-ov \jTtipo\pia, Joseph. B. J. ii. 8, 2 ; and the Thera- 
peutae were famous for their severe abstinence from 
food, Philo, Vit. Contempl. § 4. This asceticism was 
already on its uay to becoming the full-blown dualistic 
Gnosticism of the next age ; and it is not for a moment 
to be confounded with the Apostle's recommendation 
of a single life in 1 Cor. vii. 32-34, or of self-discipline 
in I Cor. ix, 27, or of the 'using such abstinence, that, 
the fle.sh being subdued to the Spirit, men may ever 
obey the motions of God,' Coll. First Sunday in Lent. 
For in these cases the motive is moral improvement, 
and not deference to a false theory about the consti- 
tution of the universe. Cf. Canon. Apost. 51 : el' tis 
(nioKOTTOS fj Trpea0iiT(poi ydfiov Kal Kpcwv Koi o'ivov, ov St ' 
aaitTjaiv dKXd Sid ^dtXvp'iav direx^Tai, i-niXaOoixwos oti iravTa 
Ka\d Xiav, Koi oti dpcnv Kal 9fj\v kiroirjaev 6 0€os tov dv9pu- 
TTov, dWd PKaa<t>rjfMiv 5jaj3dA.A.«( r^f drj puovpyiav , rj diopBovaOaj 
■q KaOaipdcrOai kou ttjs fKKXrjaias dnoPaWeaOai. 

[Obs. 4. Zeugma in ver. 3, kwXvovtojv yajxeiv [_Kai iteXfv6vT0jv~\ 
dnexfoOai ^poip.dTuv, or else kwXvovtwv must be resolved 
into TrapayyeXXovToiv fxr], the negative being dropped in 
the thought of the writer. Winer, Gr. N. T. p. 777.] 



Chapter iv. 4-6 41 

§ Digression (vv. 3 6-6 a). Confutation of the pseudo-ascetic 
precept, a-niyjea-dai ^pcaixarMV. 

Arg. I from the purpose of God in creation. The final 
cause of all ^puiixara is, that they should be partaken 
of (a) by the faithful, who, as such, know the real 
relations of man to GoD and to nature, and (/3) with 
thanksgiving (ver. 3 b). 

Arg. 2 (confirmatory (on) of ver. i) from the intrinsic 
nature of all creatures. Every thing made by Him 
{Ttav KTiajxa ©eoO) is good, and conversely none is to be 
rejected, if it be received with thanksgiving (ver. 4). 

Arg. 3 (proof of ovhiv a-no^XriTov (ver. 4) against objections 
on such grounds as that stated in Rom. viii. 20) from 
the sanctify irig power of the word of God uttered over 
the food, and accompanied by prayer (ver. 5). 

§ Practical conclusion. By suggesting arguments of this 
kind to those members of the Church who are per- 
plexed by the new theories, Timothy will be an 
excellent minister of Jesus Christ (ver. 6 a). 

[Obs. I. The Apostle (ver. 3' says nothing in refutation 
of the KwXvovTwv yafKiv, probably because more stress 
was laid by the Ephesian teachers on the prohibition 
of certain kinds of food, as five years earlier at Colossae 
(Col. ii. 16, ev Ppdicrfi rj kv Trvaei). Still the arguments 
against the false asceticism in respect of food are 
indirectly, and mutatis mutandis, valid arguments against 
a prohibition of marriage, which was also based upon 
a dualistic estimate of nature and matter.] 

[Obs. 2. The argument (ver. 3 h) from God's purpose in 
creation describes all food as given fis fiiraXrpl/iv. None 
indeed is given for merely sensuous enjoyment ; although 
in eh. vi. 17. God is described as giving us -navra -nXov- 
aiois (h auoXavoiv. This original destiny of creatures, 
as designed by the Creator for the support of man, is 
recognized by ivxo-piorio- on the part of those who believe 
{■nidToi) in an All-good Creator, and through this faith 



42 The First Epistle to Timothy 



know the aXriQua which is stated in ver. 4, as to the 
goodness of all created things.] 

[Obs. 3. The statement -nav Krla/xa &(ov Ka\6v (ver. 4) is 
based on Gen. i. 31. Compare the denial of an objectke 
uncleanness in any creature, Kom. xiv. 14 : oiiSiv koivuv 
St' tavTov, (I firj ra> Koyi^o/jfvw ti koivov elvai, eicelvw 
Koivov. Cf. Kom. xiv. 20 ; Acts x. 15.] 

[Obs. 4. Ver. 5 is a justification of ovhlv aw6^\r]Tov fifra 
fvxapiaTias XanPavofxfvov (ver. 4). How does this (vxa- 
piaria aflfect the KTicr/ia, so as to make ovStv dTropX-rjTov ? 
The answer is, ayia^trai yap Sta \6yov &fov (gen. subj.) 
jioi fVTev^etvs. The (vx^ 'fr' apiarw, or 'grace at meals,' 
consisted among the Jews, as among the first Christians, 
partly of certain sentences of Scripture, partly of prayer. 
This prayer is an expression of gratitude \evxa.pi<iTia , : 
it also, with the koyos &(ov, effects a consecration of the 
creatures appointed for human use. Such a consecra- 
tion or 'disinfection ' of nature may be deemed necessary ; 
because, although all the works of the Creator are 
originally good, yet at the Fall rfj fxaTaioTTjTi ^ Krlms 
vTTfTdyr}, Rom. viii. 20 ; while in Christ and by His 
Power all is renewed. A very early form of (vrev^is 
for this purpose is given in Const. Apost. vii. 49.] 

III. How Timothy is to have care for his own self-discipline, 
that he may deal successfully with the expected 
Apostasy (vv. 66-11). 
Precept i (positive). His own soul must be nourished 
(€VTpe(f)6ixevos) by the language in which faith expresses 
itself, and in which the beautiful teaching (of the 
Apostles) is enshrined (Ao'yot rrjs Trto-reo)? Kal ttjs KaXrjs 
6t8a(TKaAtas)— teaching which he has hitherto followed 
(ver. 6 h). 

Precept 2 (negative). He must put aside (irapaLrov) the 
well-known new Ephesian fjLvdoi. They are ^ifir]\oi— 
outside the shrine of Truth, and y/3aw8ets — old- 
womanish and absurd (ver. 7 a), 

Precept 3. He must make efforts, as a spiritual gymnast, 
in order to attain eva-e^eta (ver. 7 h). 



CJiapter iv. 7-11 43 

Reasons for Precept 3. 

Reason i frovi utility. Spiritual yv\xvaa-(.a alone is 
worth cultivation. Bodily gymnastics only profit 
men to a small extent; but piety profits men in all 
stages of human existence. A current Christian 
proverb tells us, that it ' has the promise of true 
life both here and hereafter.' The Apostle endorses 
and recommends the saying (vv. 8, 9). 

Reason 2 (justifying {yap) i) froini general Apostolic 
practice. All Christian Apostles and workers toil 
painfully and suffer reproach (et's tovto), that they 
may realize this promise of (oj}/ which is attached 
to evudfieia (ver. lo). 

Reason 3 (motive of 2) from hope resting on (ctti) 
God, as (a) a Living Being (^wyn), and (/3) in will 
the (TtiiTrip -ndvTMV, while practically this aayrripCa is 
realized in the Trtrrroi. 

§ Timothy is desired to command and teach others the 
foregoing (TavTa,^^ i-io) instructions. This concludes 
the section (ver. 11). 

[Obs. I. The notoriety of the ixvGoi (ver. 7) which Timothy 
is to eschew is implied by the article. Cf. i. 9 ; vi. 20 ; 
2 Tim. ii. 16. They are, it is implied, opposed to 
(vai^iia : they are outside the temple of Divine Truth, 
^f^rjKoi : they are anile, ypauSeis. Baur [Pastoralbriefe, 
p. is) sees in this last epithet a reference to the gro- 
tesquely tragic Valentinian story of Sophia Achamoth 
in St. Irenaeus, Ilaer. i. 4, 5. But a story about a ypaia 
would have been described as ypaiKo's (Clem. Alex. 
Paed. iii. 4), while jpawSTjs is oldu'omanlike,] 

[Obs. 2. The owixarucri yvp-vaaia (ver. 8), which is contrasted 
with yvfxvaaia tt^os ivai^uav (\ev. 7), is best explained 
of physical training for the Greek games ; St. Chrys., 
Theod., Theophyl. These gymnastic exercises occupied 
so large a place in Greek life, that to snj' that they 
profited only to a small extent (trpis iiKiyov) was by 



44 The First Epistle to Timothy 



no means a 'pointless remark.' If the Apostle had 
meant ascetic exercises, such as those recommended 
in ver. 3, he would surely have said something sterner 
about them than that they were useful Trpos dXiyov. 
That npos oXiyov means to a small extent, and not 'for 
a short time' as at St. James iv. 14, appears from the 
antithesis irpos iravra.^ 

[Obs. 3. The current utilitarian Christian proverb aboxit 
(vai^fia (ver. 8 h) is based upon Ps. i. 1-4 ; Ex. xx. 12. 
The present life (fou^ f] vvv), of which piety has the 
promise, is, however, not length of days or earthly 
prosperity, but the highest blessedness of a created 
being, as generally in the N. T. The 0. T. language 
lends itself to this spiritual sense ; see EUicott in loc. 
The Apostolic endorsement of the proverb, instead of 
preceding as at ch. i. 15, follows it : and the following 
statement of Apostolic and Christian practice is yap, 
ver. 10' based on it.] 



Ill 



How Timothy is to govern himself and the 
Church of EpJiesus (iv. 12-vi. 10). 

[Obs. At this point the peculiar circumstances of the 
Ephesian Church, arising from the activity of the new 
teachers, drop out of sight. The directions for Timothy's 
personal conduct and for his administration of the 
Church are consequently of a general character to vi. 2. 
But at ch. vi. 3, the interest again becomes local. The 
new teaching had a political side, with reference to 
Christian slaves (vi. i), and it also brought into pro- 
minence certain mercantile views of the advantages of 
piety (vi. 5), which obliged the Apostle to enter at 
some length into the subject of cptXapyvpia (vi. 6-10). 
But the general tenor of the section is independent of 
local circumstances.] 

(I) 

Eules for Timothy's personal life, hut intended to 
promote his efficiency as a Church Ruler (iv. 12-16). 

Rule I. Avoid the mistakes which may be natural to 
youth, but which forfeit respect (ver. 12). 

[Obs. The precept /xj/Sets KaTafpovehcu is a warning, not for 
tlie Ephesians, but for Timothy (cf. Titus ii. 15), as 
appears from what follows. Timothy joined St. Paul 
in the Apostle's Second Missionary Journey (Acts 
xvi. 1-3) in A. D. 51. If he was then about 20 23 years 
old, he would now have been about 34-37. With the 
ancients adolescentia, vforrjs, lasted until 40. At Ephesus 
Timothy would have had to rule irpta^vripoi, who were 
considerably his seniors. Hence the need for prudence 
and self-restraint. On the respect due from Christians 
to young bishops, see St. Ign. ad Magnes. c. 3 : Const. 
Apost. ii. r.] 



46 The First Epistle to Timothy 



Rule II. Become a pattern Christian (t^tto? t&v Tnorwr) 

I. outward expressions of life,] ®P®®^ ' "^"^ 

[ conduct, avaa-Tpocpf] 

in the / 2. ruling principles of life, 1 p . ' "'^^^^' 

[ laith, TTto-ret. 

3. consecrating grace of life, j^'''''^-^' "^^'^'^ 
\ I (ver. 12). 

[Obs. I. Tvnos Tuiv marthv. Timothy was not to be merely 
an example ' to the faithful ' (rofs maroh) ; but a pattern 
of what the faithful would become, if they corresponded 
to the Christian ideal, tvttos twv maTwv. Cf. Tit. ii. 7. 
As the proverb says, ' Verba decent, exempla trahunt.'] 

[Obs. 2, Particulars in which Timothy is to be an example. 
(V ■nvivixari is a later addition. With kv X6yco kuI iv 
dvaarpocpTf, compare Col. iii. 17, 6' ri av noi^re ev \6yq> f, 
iv epya,. Language and conduct when taken together 
form a complete revelation of character. With iv 
ayveia, cf. v. 22, Cfavrop ayvov Trjp(i.'\ 

Rule III. Give earnest attention (until the Apostle's 
arrival) 

/ 1, the public reading of Holy Scripture, ttJ avayvdaei. 
(.qJ 2- public to the will, as exhortation, rrj TrapaKkrja-et. 
preaching I to the understanding, as indruction, 
addressed 7^^ hihaaKaXia (ver. 13). 

[Obs. I. This rule defines the duties which, at any rate 
during the Apostle's absence, were to command Timo- 
thy's earnest attention. For irpo<rexe, cf. i. 4; iii. 8. 
Not that ecus implies that Timothy might neglect these 
duties after St. Paul's arrival at Ephesus. So vivid is 
the Apostle's expectation of returning to Ephesus, that 
he writes "tais tpxofiat instead of ecus av eKOcu, i Cor. iv, 5. 
Cf. Winer, Gr. N. T. p. 370.] 

[Obs. 2. The reading of Scripture here referred to was not 
private, but public. The Church found it in the Syn- 
agogue, Acts XV. 21 ; 2 Cor. iii. 15 ; and our Lord (St. Luke 
iv. 16) and His Apostles (Acts xiii. 15, 27) availed them- 
selves of it in the work of propagating Christianity. 



Chapter i v. 12-14 47 

When describing the Sunday Service, St. Justin Martyr, 
writing a. d. 139, says, that to. a-nop.vqij.ovivixaTa rSiv 
attoaroKuv rj to. avyypafi^ra tuiv irpotprjrujv dvayivdjaKerai , 
Apol. i. c. 67. And Tertullian, Aiwl. c. 39 : ' Coimus ad 
literarum divinarum commemorationem, si quid prae- 
sentium temporum qualitiis.Aut praemonere cogit, aut 
recognoscere. Certe fidem Sanctis vocibus pascimus, 
spem erigimus, fiduciam figimus.' On tlie post-apostolic 
avayvwarrjs or Lector, see Bingham, Antiquities, book iii. 

5, I sqq-] 

[Obs. 3. The two elements of Christian preaching, -napaKXi]- 
ffis and SidaaKaX'ia, are combined in Rom. xii. 7, 8, and 
also in the injunctions to Timothy in vi. 2. Cp. iv. 11. 
But in this connexion irapdyyeWe is sometimes alone ; 
« since good resolutions were more wanting in the Church 

of Ephesus than adequate knowledge. Cf. i Tim. v. 7. 
wapaKK-qais corresponds to a modern sermon, SjSacr/caAi'a 
to an instruction or lecture. J 

Iliile 1 V. Do not neglect ' the grace ' received at 
' consecration.' 

inature. As an inward gift {jov kv (toI 

Xaptcrjotaros). 
origin (ebodrj). It was given by means of 

an Apostolic utterance or prayer (8ta 

i TTpO(f)r]T€La^). 

attestation. Its bestowal was accompanied 
by the imposition of hands of the pres- 
byters ([X€Ta e-jn^eVeco? tS)v -yjeipGiv tov iipea- 
^vrepLOv), signifying their assent to the 
act (ver. 14). 

[Obs. I. Nature of the Grace. The x°P'<^A'a here referred to is 
not the office held by Timothy, but the inward grace 
which enables him to discharge it. This is clear from 
fv aoi, words which are carefully repeated in 2 Tim. 
i. 6, where St. Paul bids Timothy ava^osvvpuv ro xa- 
piafxa TOV 0€oC, o ianv iv aol bia t^s eviOeaeais tuiv 
XfifMy /J-ov. Here then xaff^^a means not gratia gratis 
data, as at i Cor. xii. 4, nor yet gratia gratum faciens ; but 



Considering 

its 



48 The First Epistle to Timothy 



a divinely imparted capacity to do a certain spiritual 
work. This gift may be unrecognized, inert, unfruitful ; 
hence, /it) a.yi.k'Kf.i and dvafaiTrvpefi/.] 

[Obs. 2. Origin of the Grace. St. Paul says here, 5id Trpofrjreiai: 
in 2 Tim. i. 6, SicL Trjs emOecrews tuv \iipSjv fj.ov. The 
inspired utterance of the Apostle, together with im- 
position of his hands, were the two media through 
which the grace was conveyed to Timothy. Mack 
{Commentar uber die Pastor albriefe, p. 331) considers npo- 
(pTjTtias an ace. plural, and refers to TTpoayovtras e-nl ae 
■npotpTjrdai in i. 18, making hia=propter. Some earlier 
prophetic utterances of Christians at Derbe are here, 
he thinks, alluded to as the ground of Timothy's ordina- 
tion. Cf. Acts xvi. 2. But the phrase 5<d npocprjTiias is 
best explained by the corresponding Sid t^? em9e<r(ajs 
Xfipwv, Acts viii. 18 ; 2 Tim. i. 6. The irpofTjTfia, or 
inspired utterance, would in this case have been not 
improbably a prayer, although it might have been some 
sentence like that of the later Western and our own 
Ordinal, 'Accipe Spiritum Sanctum.'] 

[Obs. 3. Attestation of the reality of this Grace. Its bestowal 
was accompanied by the kmOeais twv x^'P"'" '''oS Trpea- 
PvTepiov. /xerai f-mOfaeais is not to be confounded with 
5«d (ni9(afcos : see Winer, Gr. N. T. p. 471. The Apostle's 
fTTi6((Tii x^^P^'" conveyed the x°-P^^I^ to Timothy. The 
kiriOiais rwv x^'-P'^'" "^^^ npfa^vTepiov signified the con- 
sent of the presbyters to the act of the Apostle. The 
symbolical action of laying on of hands had already 
this double sense in the 0. T. When Moses laid his 
hands on Joshua, Joshua was thereby ' filled with the 
spirit of wisdom ;' Deut. xxxiv. 9. When the children 
of Israel laid their hands upon the Levites, it was to 
recognise the fact of their being set apart for the service 
of the Lord ; Numb. viii. 10. No presbyter could convey 
the necessary x^P^'^P^"- to Timothy ; but the entire 
College of presbyters in Ephesus signified its con- 
currence in the action of the Apostle. The ancient 
custom, preserved in our Ordinal, by which ' the bishop 
with the priests present shall lay their hands severally 
upon the head of every one that receiveth the order 
of priesthood,' is grounded on this passage, which, 
however, describes Timothy's consecration as ' bishop ' 
The TO -npia^vripLov (used of the Sanhedrin in St. Luke 
xxii. 66 ; Acts xxii. 5 ; only here of a body of Christian 



Chapter iv. 15 4^ 

presbyters) could not have existed at Lystra, Acts 
xvi. 1-3 ; and leads us to connect the event referred 
to with Ephesus, and Timothy's consecration to be 
'bishop' of that Church.] 

[Obs. 4. The references to Timothy's 'consecration' to be 
' Bishop ' of Ephesus may be stated as follows : — 

1. He was designated for the position by inspired 
utterances of Christian prophets (kotA -ras -npo- 
a-yovaas k-nl at vpofrjTeias, i Tim. i. i8). 

2. He was 'consecrated' to it by St. Paul, (i) 5id ttjs 
fmOeaews rwv -xeipuiv (mov, 2 Tim. i. 6 ; (2) Sia irpo- 
(prjTtias, I Tim. iv. 14 : i. e. by imposition of hands, 
and an inspired utterance accompanying it. 

3. His consecration was assented to by the body of 
presbyters in Ephesus, who signified this assent by 
laying their hands on him {ixira emOeaecos ruv xetpuiv 
Tov irpeal3vTepi.ov), i Tim. iv. 14.] 



§ Suggestions of a general kind appended to the foregoing 
(ravTu, vv. 12-14) i^ules (vv. 15, 16). 

Suggestion i, respecting intensity of purpose (ver. 15). 



Let thy devotion 
to the matter of 



who is continuously thinking on 
them (ravTa y^ieA era). 

these rules bel ^" ^^^ ^^^®® ^^ them, as the world 
that of a man I J^^^^ ^^ inhabits {h roirois 

'ia-Ot) (ver. 15). 



Reason. That thy progress (ttpokottt/), in all the par- 
ticulars named, may be manifest (ver. 15). 

[Obs. f^eKtrau only here and in Acts iv. 25 (quoting Ps. ii. i). 
The original sense is exercere, the later meditari. iv tovtoh 
iaOi: of. Hor. Ep. i. i. n, ' omnis in hoc sum.' The 
reason given (liva aov ^ TrpoKowrj (pavtpa 77) proceeds on 
the ground that, as a bishop, Timothy owed an example 
of progress to his flock. Cf. St. Mat. v. 16.] 
E 



50 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



Suggestion 2, respecting hvo matter's which demand 
anxious attention (ver. 16). 

I. Fix attention >^ [a. thyself, creavT<2 (as one who should 
be a TVTTOs t&v Tnarcov). 
h. the doctrine, rfj bLbaa-KakCq (of the 
Apostles, entrusted to thee) 
(ver, 16). 



on, e-n-exe, 

2. Continue toh 

be engaged | 

in, kTsi}X€ve, ' 



Reason. In doing this thou wilt save both thyself and 
thy hearers (ver. 16). 

[Obs. avTois is better referred to aeavToi and tt} StSaffKakia, 
than to the preceding Rules (vv. 12-14). To neglect 
a. would be to be lost himself; to neglect b. would 
risk the salvation of his hearers. But Timothy must 
save himself in saving his hearers.] 



(2) 

Directions for Timothy's guidance, when dealing tvith 
different classes of persons under Ms care (v. i-vi. lo). 

I. Persons deserving ecclesiastical censure (v. i, 2). 

/I. (genercd rule) use exhortation rather than 
reprimand (/x?/ iimrXri^ris, aWa irapaKakeL) 
(ver. i). 

2. (particular rule) treat each person deserving 
censure as if he or she were a relative of the 
corresponding age. And so 

1 



In 

censuring/ 
any 



(tt. an old man, ^ (a. a father. 



exhort- 



b. younger men, 

c. old women, 

yd. younger women. 



as if ]b. brothers (ver. i), 
exhorting c. mothers, 

W. sisters (ver. 2). 

§ When exhorting the v^cor^pas, let it be iv irda-r] ayvtia (ver. 2). 



Chapter iv. i6-v. 3 51 



[Obs. I. St. Chrys. says that the words npeff^vrtpos, vfwTepov, 
irpeaPvTepa, and vtwTtpa denote here simply persons of 
different ages, and not ecclesiastical persons. In ver. 
17 the ecclesiastical sense of 'presbyter* is rendered 
necessary by the context. fm-nXijTreiv, an. \(y. in N.T., 
implies more severity than the more usual (mrtfidv 
(2 Tim. iv. 2) or kKtyxuv. Timothy's age made this 
caution necessary.] 

[Obs. 2. On ras vimrtpas, St. Chrys. paraphrases nrj^t Inoiptav. 
(prjai, Sa)s.] 



2. Widows (vv. 3-16). 

[Obs. Two classes of widows are discussed in this para- 
graph, (i) Widows supported out of the public funds 
of the Church (w. 3-8), and {2) Widows enrolled in au 
Ecclesiastical Order (vv. 9-16).] 

Of Widows sui^ported out of the public Church funds 
(vv. 3-8). 

I. General Rule. Widows are to be honoured, by being 
supported at the cost of the public Church funds, 
provided that they are reed widows (ver. 3}. 

[Obs. I. Tinav here means 'give material proofs of honour,' 
as at St. Mat. xv. 4,6; cf. hnKfis rtfiijs (ver. 17) ; possibly 
also Acts xxviii. 10, and contrast -napfOiwpovvTo, Acts vi, i. 
That Tifiav here means 'to support,' is implied in 
dfioi^as aTToStSufai (ver. 4), npovoti (ver. 8), eirapKfiroj 
(ver. 16). The Latin honorare is used in a similar 
sense.] 

[Obs. 2. The word XVP*^ (for root, see Liddell and Scott's 
Lexicon, 7th ed.) means, like liduus, one who is in 
want, deserted. Hence 17 ovtws xvp^ is a widow who 
may really be called one, as being in fact what the word 
suggests (compare ver. 4, Kal ^.(fiovajiJiivq, ver. 5, and 
ver. 16), and not a 'literal widow' in contrast to an 
ecclesiastical xhp"- (Baur, Pastor albrie/e, p. 47.) The bona 
fide widow must be alone in life, and of a certain moral 
character. The earliest Christian Church felt a filial 
duty towards lonely widows ; see Acts vi. i. St. Ignat. 
ad Folijcarp. 4, x^P°' H-1 d.ix(\€L<rOwaav. St. Justin Martyr, 

E a 



52 The First Epistle to Timothy 

Apolog. i. 67, TO (TvXKey6iJ.(vov napa rai irpoiarwri dTroTiO(Tai, 
KOI avTos iTTiKovpei dp(pavots re ical x'j/'a's. From the letter 
of Cornelius of Rome to Fabius of Antioch (a. d. 251), 
which is given by Eusebius, H. E. vi. 43, it appears that 
in the third century there were more than 1500 widows 
and paupers supported by the Church in Rome.] 

2. Cautions to be observed in the application of the pre- 
ceding General Rule (vv. 4-8). 

First Caution. It does not apply to a ividow who has 
surviving children or grandchildren. Before the 
relatives of such a widow apply to the Church for 
public aid, let them learn 

a. the duties of natural piety {tvcre^dv) towards [members 

of] their own household (ver. 4) ; 
h. to repay the debt which they owe (a/jiot/3as a-nohihovai) 

to parents or grandparents (jols -npoyovois) (ver. 4). 

Reason {yap). Pious care for aged relatives [tovto) is 
acceptable before GoD (ver. 4). 

[Obs. I. St. Chrys. makes x^/"" (implied in xhp°-i under- 
stood collectively) the subject of fxavOaviTojaav, instead 
of TtKva T] fKyova. But this construction diminishes 
the force of ilatfiiiv, which is more naturally used of 
filial than of parental 'piety'; while it destroys that 
of dfiot^as airoSiSovai. St. Chrys. suggests that a parent 
repays the debt he owes to his ancestors in the persons 
of his children ; but this is scarcely to be inferred 
from the text, npoyovot, generally ' dead ' ancestors, is 
used of living parents in Plat. Legg. xi. 931 E, and is 
perhaps introduced here by way of antithesis to eKyova. _ 
Observe rbv idtov oikov, with reference to members of the 
same family.] 

[Obs. 2. Ka\dv Kai, text, rec, before dfroSeKTov is probably 
introduced from i Tim. ii. 3.] 

Second Caution. It does not apply to any but a genuine 
widow (rj 6vT0)s XW"-)- ^^^^ genuine widow is 
accordingly described (vv. 5, 6) 



Chapter v. 4-7 53 

,«. by her family circumstances. She is left alone in the 

world, ii€\xovMixi.vri (ver. 5). 
h. by her religious character. For 

''a. has once for all hoped and still hopes (I'lKinKev), 
looking towards (eiri with ace.) God (ver. 5). 
6. prays both for the satisfaction of her wants 
she-< (Tat J h€i](re(rLr), and as an expression of her 

devotion (rat? Trpoa-evxais) (ver, 5). 
c. perseveres {-npocrixiveL) in these prayers by night 
and by day (ver. 5). 
c. by contrast with the riotous widow (rj aTraraXwcra), who 
\ though physically alive is spiritually dead {Coxra 
T^OvqKc) (ver. 6). 
§ Practical Direction. Timothy is to issue a command 
(irapdyyeWe) in accordance with the preceding instruc- 
tions (ravTa, vv. 5, 6), to the end that the widows (who 
live on public Church funds) may be irreproachable 
(avcTTiX-qiTTOL) (ver. 7). 

[Obs. I. The description of the 77 ovtois x'np"- OJ^ its positive 
side I'ecalls St. Luke's account of the prophetess Anna, 
XVPO' ei^J fTwv oySorjKOVTaTtaadpcuv, ^ ovk atpiOTaro and tov 
Upov, VTjffTe'iais Kai defiaeai Xarptvovaa vvktu koi ^fitpav, 
ii. 37. Widows who were supported out of the Church 
alms must be women of devout Christian lives, as well 
as without any near relations. Observe ^X-nixev tnl 
&t6v, not as in iv. 10, tm @(w. -qXTtLKivai tm witli ace. = 
hope directed towards God ; with dai. = hope resting 
upon God. For rafs Strjcreai Kal rats Trpoaevxa'^, see ii. i. 
St. Jer. Ep. ad Ageruch. cxxiii. 6, 'Quibus Deus spes est, 
et omne opus oratio.'] 

[Obs. 2. The a-naraXwaa, or dissipated widow, forms a vivid 
contrast to 17 ovtcxjs xrjpa, whose life is devoted to piety. 
airaraKdv, to be luxurious, wanton, is used as synony- 
mous with Tpvipdu in St. James v. 5. Cf. Ezek. xvi. 49 ; 
Eeclus. xxi. 15. The contrast between physical existence 
and moral and spiritual death in (Siaa rtOvrjKe occurs 
also at Eph. iv. 18; Eev. iii. i. Theophyl. kuv 5o«j) ^tjv 



54 The First Epistle to Timothy 

TavTTjv TTjv alaO'qTTjv, reOvrjKe Kara irvevfia. It is more 
serious than ' death to the community ' in the Pytha- 
gorean sense, by banishment or expulsion. lamblich. 
de vita Pythag. c. 17.] 

§ Consideration of a tacit Objection to Caution i. What 
is to be said of the case of those widows whose near 
relatives refuse them any support 1 (ver. 8). 
Answer. Such refusal places these relatives outside the 
Christian pale. Any man (ns) who takes no fore- 
thought for his relations (twv lUoav), and especially for 
those who belong to his household (otfceicoy), 
I a. denies the [moral value of a Christian's] faith (ver. 8); 
\h. falls below the conventional standard of heathen 
views of duty [itrTiv clttlo-tov x^ipuiv) (ver. 8). 

[Obs. I. The Apostle has in his immediate view the obli- 
gations of a Christian householder to support a widowed 
mother, or grandmother (ver. 4). But he states this 
duty in its broadest and most inclusive form, as em- 
bracing all relations, and particularly members of the 
family circle (tcui' ihiwv koI /xaXiara olKtiaiv). Compare 
TOP iSiov oIkov (ver. 4), where also a widowed parent or 
grand-parent is what is exactly meant. The real extent 
of the natural obligation covers so much more gi-ound 
than the particular duty which is neglected, as to have 
the force of an a fortiori argument.] 
[Obs. 2. By dmarov is meant a non-believer, without imply- 
ing hostility to Christianity, as 2 Cor. iv. 4 ; Tit. i. 15, or 
apostasy from it. Non-Christians have a conventional 
standard of natural morality, and the Christian who 
neglects near relations falls below that standard. Cf. 
St. Mat. V. 46, 47 ; Anaxim., ap. Stob. 79. 37, ri yap ean 
biKaioTipov fl Tovs yiviaiws Kal ■naidiias alriovs ovras avrevep- 
yereiv ; and Eur. Fragm. 848 : 

offTis Si Toi (pvffavTf fJ-Tj Ti.jiav 9e\ri, 
firi fioi ■yivoiTO nr)Te avvOvT-qs Ofois, 
firjT Iv 6a\aaar] KoivunXovv artWoi (XKd<pos. 

For the general natural duty of children to parents, 
see Eph. vi. i ; Col. iii. ao ; St. Mat. xv. 4 ; xix. 19 ; 
St. Mark vii, 10 ; x. 19 ; St. Luke xviii. ao.] 



Chapter v. 8 55 

II. Of the Ecclesiastical Institute or Order of Widoivs (xvpo- 
KaTaX€y4(r6(a) (vv. 9-16). 

[Obs. I. In the sub-apostolic age X'7/'« h^<i ^^ ecclesiastical as 
well as a natural meaning : it was even used of women 
who had never been married, but who had consecrated 
themselves to God in a single life. Cf. St. Ign. ad Smyrn. 
c. 13, at Trap6fi'oi, ai Xeyoftevai XW'" > Clem. Rec. vi. 15, 
ordo viduarum, cf. Clem. Hom. xi. 36. It is at least 
possible that the word had partly acquired a technical 
'religious' meaning in the apostolic age itself, as had, 
e. g., ■npiafivnpo^. The word KaraXejiaOw marks the act 
by which the ecclesiastical widow was separated from 
the great body of ovtws xVP°-^- Her name was entered 
on a list. Perhaps too, as in later times, this was 
accompanied by x^'^poTovia, or x^'/'o^sc/a. (Const. Apost. 
viii. c. 19 ; Cone. Chalced. c. 15 : see Bright on Cone. 
Nicaen. Can. 19 ; Notes on Canons of First Four Councils, 
pp. 8r sqq., second edition). In ver. 9, X'7P" is in fact 
the predicate. ' As a widow, let no one be entered on 
the catalogue who is not,' &c. See Winer, Ch: N. T. p. 738.] 

[Obs. 2. It would appear probable that in the apostolic 
age all women consecrated to God, in a single life 
and for doing works of mercy, formed a single ra-yfia, or 
order. Such a general association would naturally have 
been suggested by the precedent of those holy women, 
Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna, and many others who, 
during Christ's ministry, Sir/Kovovv avrois (i.e. Christ and 
the Twelve) l/c tHjv vwapxovrcov aiiTais (St. Luke viii. 3), 
and were present at His Crucifixion, after following Him 
from Galilee, diafcovovaai avrw, St. Mat. xxvii. 55. The 
XtpiKov of the apostolic age may have comprised the 5«d- 
Kovot, Rom. xvi. i, or SiaKoviaffai, as well as the npeaPvTfpai, 
npiaPvTiSes, irpoKa0r]pievai, of a later time. One aspect of 
such a general Institute was developed in this portion 
of the Church, and another in that : the Apostolic rule 
of A. D. 67, that the ecclesiastical XW" ^^ Ephesus must 
be sixty years old, could not have been required in 
A. D. 58 of the energetic SiaKovos Phoebe at Cenchrea. 
The x^P°' ^t Ephesus were rather irpea^vTiSts than 
SiaKopiaaat. In time the different elements of the 
common Apostolic Institute became distinct bodies.] 



56 The First Epistle to Timothy 

I. Qualifications required in a widow who is to be registered 
as belonging to the Order (vv. 9, 10). These concern 
her 

1. age. She must be at least sixty years old (ver. 9). 

[Obs. I. This advanced age is insisted on for widows in 
TertuUian {cle Virg. reland. c. 9^1 and St. Basil {Ep. cxcix. 
Can. 24) ; but the Council of Chalcedon fixes forty as 
the earliest age for a deacotiess (Can. 15), and the 
legislation of Justinian requires sometimes fifty {Novell. 
vi. 6\ sometimes forty {Novell, cxxiii 13), years of age. 
The Theodosian code still speaks of sixty for deaconesses 
(lib. xvi. ; tit. 2. 27). See Bingham, Ant. ii. 22. 4.] 

[Obs. 2. This advanced age seems to imply that the order 
of vpidows at Ephesus, although its members wrere to be 
chosen on the ground of active services in the past 
(ver. 10), would be 'contemplative' and devotional, 
rather than practical and philanthropic] 

2. tvedded life. She must have been married to one 
husband only (kvbs avbpos yvvri) (ver. 9). 

[Obs. Like /uas ywaiKos dvfjp (i Tim. iii. 2 ; Tit. i. 6 , tlie 
phrase kvos dvSpos yvvrj refers to success-ive, not to 
simultaneous polygamy. The Apostle cannot have meant 
that Timothy was not to choose a widow who had had 
more ' husbands ' than one at the same time ; since such 
polyandry %vas condemned throughout the Greek and 
Roman as well as the Jewish world, and would have 
been regarded as intolerable by any Christian woman. 
To have married only once was a symptom of (ytcpareia, 
and on this account is required of the ecclesiastical 
widows as well as of the clergy. Hence TertuUian, 
ad Uxor. i. 7, ' Disciplina ecclesiae et praescriptio apostoli 
.... viduam adlegi in ordinationem nisi univiram non 
concedit.' These ' univirae ' are called by St. Epiphanius 
fiov6yafj.oi (yKpaTfVffafjLtvai fj xrjpivaaaai utto fiovo-fa/ji.ias. 
Exposit. Fid. c. 21. Cf. Const. Ap. vi. 17, &c. Theodoret 
(in loc.) understands kvos dvSpds yvij to exclude only 
such as had married again after being divorced from 
a former husband ; oii Tfjv Siyaplav fK^aWei, dWd to 
awfppovcus iv yafxa) 0iovv vop-oOtnl. But this explanation 
reflects the reaction of Theodoret's age against the 



1 



• 



Chapter v. 9, 10 57 

exaggerated condemnation of all second marriages 
which characterized the later sub-apostolic period. It 
is not the natural meaning of St. Paul's language.] 

3. active goodness. She must bear a high character in 
the matter of eminently good works (h epyois KaXoh 
fxapTvpovixevrj) (ver. lo) ; for example (d), 
'a. having brought up orphan chi\dven(€T( Ki>oTp6(f)rjaev). 
h. having given bed and board to strangers (f^erooo- 

c. having ' washed the feet ' of Christians [ayiiav 

d. having relieved the afflicted [OXi^ofxivots eiTTipKeo-ev). 

e. having endeavoured to further every good under- 
taking (set on foot by others) (iravrl ^py(f ayaG(a 
iTTrjKoXovdrjae) (ver. lo). 

[Obs. I. The candidate for admission to the Order must be 
HaprvpovfiivT}, a person of weZI-attested (see Acts vi. 3 ; 
X. 22 ; xvi. 2) character in the department of {iv) 
eminently good (jcaXoTi) works (ver. 25 ; vi. 18). The 
hypothetical clauses, fi iTfKvoTp6<pr]afv, k.t.X. are ex- 
planatory of ep-^ois icaKoTs, although dependent upon 
icaTa\(y(a$ai.^ 
[Obs. 2. a. Education of orphans. That (Tei{voTp6(pr]afv would 
refer to the bringing up orphans is probable ; since this 
epfov would be kuKov, while a widow who brought up 
her own children would only discharge a natural 
obligation. Doubtless, in either case, ov Optifat p.6vov 
airairfi, dWa Kal to fvatpus Optxpai. Theodoret. 

6. Entertainment of strangers, i^ivoboxqaiv like the 
tniaKoiros, who must be (pt\u^(vo^, iii. 2. Cf. St. Mat. 
XXV. 35, feVos ijiJ^Tjv Kal awrjydyeTe fn. 

c. Washing the feet of Christians. This was not merely 
an Oriental way of showing hospitality : it was a proof 
of humility (i Sam. xxv. 41) and love (St. Luke vii. 38, 
44), and a special imitation of our Lord Himself 
(St. John xiii. 4 sqq.). The spirit of the action was to 
show that not merely the substance, but the most 
refined and humiliating courtesies of hospitality, were 
due to brethren in Christ {dyiwv nvSas). So (Ecumenius, 
ti TOLS ia\dTas vmjptaias rots dyiots di'€ira«7Xvi'T-ws (^triKfaf. 



58 The First Epistle to Timothy 

d. Belief oj Vie afflicted. This is to be explained 
primarily of almsgiving to those who are hard pressed 
by want ; but both (irapKuv and Oki^fcrOai have a wider 
sense, and thus the alleviation of any kind of suffering 
is included in the expression. 

e. Furtherance of all good undertakings. In (irrjKoXoi- 
Orjae, the effect of (iri is not to intensify the act, but 
to mark its direction, i St. Pet. ii. 21. The word must 
not be confused with SiajKnv in i Thess. v. 15 ; Heb. 
xii. 14 ; I Tim. vi. 11, as meaning merely the pursuit 
of goodness ; it implies the following after eveiy good 
work which others may have set on foot. A readiness 
to do this implies humility and unselfishness, in which 
the originators of great schemes for good are sometimes 
deficient.] 

2. Disqualification for admittance to the Ecclesiastical Order 
of widows (vv. 11-15). 
■§ Rule. Timothy must decline (-apatrov) the applications 
of younger tvidotvs : they are, as such, inadmissible 
(ver. 11). 

[Obs. vtwTipas does not mean rigidly widows who are under 
sixty; but generally 'younger widows'; so vtwripa's in 
ver. 2. irapaiTov is antithetical to KaraXiyiaOoj (ver. 9. 
Baur's rendering, whicli separates vtwripas and XVP"-^- 
'jiingere Personen des weiblichen Geschlechts nimm 
nicht in den Katalogus der xiP"-'- ^^^' {Paulus, vol. ii. 
p. ii4n.), is due to his theory of the date of the Epistle.] 

§ Reasons for the exclusion of v^diT^pai xripai from the 
Ecclesiastical Order of widows (vv. 1 1-15). 
Reason i. From the risk to which they are exposed of 
unfaithfulness to religious engagements. When these 
younger widows have come to feel restive against [the 
rule of] Christ (KaTaarp-qvidawai tov Xjoiotou), they want 
to marry (yafxelv diXovaiv). No sooner have such desires 
arisen, than the younger widows carry within them 
a sentence of condemnation [^yovaai Kplp-a), to the effect 
that they have broken their first compact with Christ 
(vv. 11-12). 



/. 



Chapter v. 11-15 59 

Reason 2. From the ri)>k they incur of mischievous 
idleness. The younger widows learn to be (a) idle, 
by going about from house to house. And withal, to 
be (b) gossips ((pXvapoi), and (c) busy-bodies [-KepUpyoi), 
who talk about subjects which cannot be thought right 
for them (to /x?/ oeoi-ra) (ver. 13). 

Reason 3. From the {oivv bases this on ver. 13) advisa- 
bility of their marrying again (ver. 14). 

[Obs. The Apostle is answering a tacit objection, 'What then 
are the younger widows to do?' He would have them 
marry again.] 

§ Reasons why the younger widows should maiTy again 
(ver. 14). 
a. (positive) because thus they will be healthfully 
occupied, in having families (TCKvoyovdv) and 
managing their households (olKobea-noTe'lv) (ver. 14), 
•\6. (negative) because t?ius they will afford the op- 
ponent of Christianity (rw avTiK^niivif) no ground 
for injurious reproach (\xTf]hi\xiav a<^op\xr\v . . . 
XoLbopias X^P'-^') (ver. 14). 

Reason 4 (Arg. (yap) for Reason 3). From the teaching 
of experience. Already some younger widows who 
have entered the Order, or at any rate have not 
married again, have turned aside from the path of 
virtue (i^^Tpd-r^crav) to follow Satan in that of sen- 
suality (ver. 15). 

[Obs. I. The risk of unfaithfulness (vv. ii, 12) to their 
plighted word on the part of the younger widows 
arises when natural restiveness against religious obliga- 
tions makes itself felt. The phrase KaraaTprjvidu tov 
Xpiarov is equivalent to aTfyqviaf Kara tov XpiffTov : just 
as in St. James ii. 13, KaraHavxarai tAeoj Kpiatais stands 
for Kavxarai lAeos Kara Kpiaeais. The verb arprfviav is 
joined with -nopvfvfiv in Rev. xviii. 9 ; and the noun 



6o TJic First Epistle to Timothy 



aTprjvos with iropvua in Rev. xviii. 3. The phrase implies 
that Christ is a Bridegroom, to Whom the XOP"- Kara- 
Xejoixivrj plights her troth, and to Whom she is un- 
faithful when she desires to marry again. So St. Jerome 
{Ep. cxxiii. 3), 'fornicatae sunt in injuriam Christi.' 
Observe, yafieiv eiXovaiv, not yafiovaiv : even the wish 
to marry another is to be false to the avverjKrj (St. Chrys.) 
with Christ. This unfaithfulness is expressed by d0(Ttiv 
mariv^ ' fidem irritam facere,' the condemning conscious- 
ness (KpTfia) of which the younger widows who wish to 
marry again bear about with them, {(xovaai = kavTais 
trapixovaai.) The -niaris with Christ is here called 
-rrpdiTTj, — not in depreciation of that entered into with 
the first husband, but relatively to the new desire to 
marry again. For the moment, the claim of Christ, the 
true Bridegroom, and the attraction of a second earthly 
marriage are alone in question.] 

[Obs. 2. The risk of a life of idleness in the younger widows, 
if admitted to the Order, arises from their duties. In 
discharging these they have to go about {wtpiepx^Hivai 
Tny oiKias) from one house to another ; and thus [i) 'they 
learn to be idle ' {apyal /xavOavovffi). (For this construc- 
tion of p.avOa.vfiv, see Plat. Euthydem. p. 276 B ; Winer, 
Gr. N. T. p. 436.) Nor is this all ; (observe the rhetorical 
i-navopOwais) : they at the same time become (2) garrulous 
{<p\vapoi, air. Xey. in N. T.), and (3) busybodies, rrfpUpyoi 
(compare 2Thess. iii. 11, pirjSei' epya^op.ivovs, dWa irepiepya- 
^opevovs), talking of many matters which cannot be 
thought befitting (jd pfj deovra. Cf. Tit. i. 11 ; Winer, 
Gr. N. T. p. 603).] 

[Obs. 3. The Apostolical desire that the younger widows 
should marry again is grounded {ovv) on the alternative 
risk of idleness and garmlity. A second marriage will 
afford them occupation, and will thus silence the un- 
friendly criticisms of an opponent of Christianity. 
yap-fiv is here used of a second marriage, as at i Cor. 
vii. 39. olKoSeaiTOTeiv (air. \(y.) describes the relation of 
a husband to his household : he is said tov oikov vpola- 
raaOat, i Tim. iii. 4, 12. The application of such a word 
to a Christian wife implies the new and improved 
position which was secured to women by the Gospel. 
That the dvTiKeijxfvos is not the evil one (St. Chrys.), 
but a human opponent vPhil. i. 28 ; Tit. ii. 8), is suggested 
by \oiSopias x^-P^^j — an epexegetic addition to dipoppjjv — 



Chapter v. i6 6i 

showing the manner in which the occasion would be 
employed, 'to promote repi'oach.' The importance of 
this text as against early rigorist denunciations of all 
second marriages has been often recognised. Const. 
Apost. iii. 2.] 
[Obs. 4. The test of experience {rfir\) warranted (7<i/)) what 
had just been said about fj.rj5fiJ.iav d<popfjT)v SiSuvai tS 
avTiKiifjivw. Some young widows had turned away from 
Christ, and had followed (diriaw, Acts v. 37 ; xx. 30) 
Satan into unchastity. Here the language suggests that 
if Christ is the Bridegroom, Satan is the seducer.] 

§ Supplementary instruction respecting the case of younger 
widows who do not marry (ver. 16). 
Consideration of a tacit Objection to vv. 11-15. What is 
to become of younger widows who do not marry, and 
who yet cannot be admitted to the Order? (ver. 16). 
Ansicer. A Christian man or woman who has such 
widows among his or her relatives must supply them 
with the necessaries of life ((irapKeiTco avraU). The 
Church should not be burdened with the care of them ; 
she should be left free to provide for those true widows 
who have no near relations (6vto)s xvp<^''^> cf. ver. 3) 
(ver. 16). 

[Obs. This verse is partly parallel to vv. 4, 8. There, how- 
ever, it is a question of the support of elderly widows 
by their younger relatives ; here, of younger widows 
(who do not marry, and cannot be admitted to the 
Order) by their older relatives. Griesbach and Lachmann 
omit maros rj with N. A. C. F. G. 17. 47. Papeiadcu : the 
verb jSapeiV belongs to late Greek : the classical form is 
Papwdv. St. Luke xxi. 34 ; 2 Cor. i. 8 ; v. 4.] 

3. Presbyters (w. 17-25). 

[Obs. That Trpfa^vrepos must here be taken in its ecclesiastical, 
not its natural sense, is plain from the context, itaXais 
■npofaruiTis, and Kofw Koi SiSaa/caXia. The qualifications 
to be insisted on in the ■npiafivrfpo's or emaKonos have 
been already stated in ch. iii. 2-7. In that passage 



62 The First Epistle to Timothy 

St. Paul calls him enicTKovos, because the nature of his 
ivork would suggest the necessary character of the 
worker ; here vpecrpvTepos, because Timothy must be 
reminded of the dignity of the Church officers whom 
he rules. It is remarkable that St. Peter and St. James, 
as writing to Jewish Churches, always use npicrPvTtpos. 
The word (D''3(?p was familiar to the Jews ; as it was 
derived from them. There were elders in the Sanhedrim, 
as assessors to the chief priests and scribes ; and the 
local congregations or synagogues had their presiding 
elders. St. Luke vii. 3 ; Acts v. 21, yepovaia : Acts xiii. 15. 
But the name was new to the Gentile converts, who 
would have thought it strange that young men, as 
often happened, should be ordained vpeff^vrtpoi : and 
it was used, as on this occasion, to bring the claims and 
dignity of the office into view. Dollinger, Grundlegung, 
iii. I.] 

I. Honourable recognition of the ivork of Presbyters 
(vv. 17, 18). 

Rule I. Presbyters who preside well over their Churches 
(ot KaXQs ■TTpoeoTwres) are to be deemed worthy of 
a double (i.e. ample) acknowledgment in the way 
of stipend (ver. ly a). 

Mule 2 (bL7T\r]s rt/x^s). This provision especially applies 
to those presbyters who work hard (/co-n-twyres) at 
preaching (iv Aoyw) and giving instruction in Christian 
Doctrine (bibaa-KaXia) (ver. 176). 

Reasons {yap) for the foregoing Rules (ver. 18). 

Reason i, from the mystical sense of Deut. xxv. 4: 
' Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the 
corn.' The broad moral principle of this precept 
warrants its application to the ministers of the 
Church (ver. 18). 

Recction 2, from the popular proverb, also cited by our 
Lord (St. Luke x. 7), that ' the labourer is worthy 
of his hire ' (ver. 18). 



< 



Chapter v. 17, 18 63 



[Obs. 1. The word npoeaTwrts points to the original function of 
presbyters as pastors of single congregations, over wliich 
as eiria/coiroi they watched, which they guarded from 
error, and fed with the word and the sacraments, 
Acts XX. 28 sqq. ; i St. Peter v. 2 ; St. James v. 14 sqq. 
When such congi-egations were formed by the missionary 
action of the Apostles, so much of ministerial power was 
delegated to the presiding member as would enable 
him to teach and feed the souls of which he had charge, 
without however transmitting this power to others. 
The presbyters seem to have been instituted after the 
bioLKovoi, although nothing is said about the first insti- 
tution of the Order, which soon became important in 
Jerusalem ; Acts xiv. 23 ; xv. 2, 6, 23. Dollinger suggests 
that the seven Deacons may themselves have been 
presbyters ; and that the complete separation of the two 
Orders belongs to a later date : at any rate, Phil. i. i 
shows that it had taken place before a. d. 62 ; Grundlegmig, 
ill. I.] 

[Obs. 2. The context shows that rt/xTj here means ' honour- 
able support,' or perhaps an 'honorarium,' paid by 
each congregation to the presiding presbyter. St. Chrys. 
paraphrases, depairda ical twv dvayKaiouv x'^PVl'^'^- Such 
a stipend is to be bnrXfi, that is, not strictly ' double 
of the sum paid to deacons or to widows,' but ample. 
Cf. Is. xl. 2 ; Jer. xvi. 18 ; xvii. 18. The clause fiaXiara 
01 Ko-mwvTfs (V Xofcfi uai diSaa/ca\ia would seem to imply 
that at Ephesus there were some presbyters who were 
devoted to other works, such as study, or pastoral 
visitation : the x<^P"^f^°- of teaching persuasively not 
being given equally to all. X070S is more inclusive than 
Si5aaKa\ia : Xuyos would mean exhortation as well as 
instruction ; diSaoKaXia only the latter. On the pay of 
the Clei-gy out of the alms offered by the faithful, see 
Const. Ajiost. ii. 28.] 

[Obs. 3. The text, Deut. xxv. 4, itJ^^B -\'\^ Dbnn-xj?, is 
explained by the custom of driving the oxen over heaps 
arranged in circles, which they thus trod out with 
their hoofs (Hos. x. ii'j, or harnessing them to heavy 
threshing waggons which they drew over the corn. 
See Judges viii. 7 ; Is. xxviii. 27 ; Winer, Realwbtierbuch, 
s. v. 'dreschen'; Joseph. ^w<. iv. 8. 21. It was character- 
istic of the mercifulness of the Jewish law that beasts 
of labour should not be prevented from refreshing 
themselves while they worked. But at i Cor. ix. 9, 



64 The First Epistle to Timothy 

where St. Paul again interprets this passage of the 
support due to the Christian Clergy, he explains the 
principle of the interpretation by asking, ' Doth God care 
for oxen?' That original application of the principle 
was insufficient to exhaust it, and warranted its later 
application as an a fortiori argument. So Philo, cle Saai- 
Jicantibus, ad init. : ov yap vntp rwv oXoyaiv 6 v6p.os, aKK' 

vnip TUIV VOVV Kai \uyOV i-)(OVT(tiV-\ 

[Obs. 4. The proverb d^ios d fpydrrjs rov /xiadov aiirov is not 
found in Lev. xix. 13 ; Deut.xxiv. 14. It was in common 
use among the Jews, and is quoted by our Lord, St. Luke 
X. 7 (cf. St. Mat. X. 10). Theodoret and Theophylact 
think that St. Paul is quoting from our Lord's words ; 
Baur from St. Luke's Gospel, which (he urges) is called 
17 7pa</)57— an ' indication of the post- Apostolic date of the 
Epistle,' Pustoralbriefe, pp. 133, 134. But )) ypafprj is satisfied 
by Deut. xxv. 4, which is quoted first ; and it is easy 
to suppose that our Lord and His Apostle should have 
appealed independently to a well-known proverb, em- 
bodying a principle of natural justice.] 

II. Dlscijjlinary proceedings against Presbyters (vv. ig-21). 

[Obs. Timothy, as a bishop, exercises discipline over his 
presbyters and the faithful generally : cf. Heb. xiii. 17 ; 
I Cor. iv. 21 ; 2 Cor. x. 6 ; 2 Thess. iii. 14. He is there- 
fore also a Judge, — not merely in foro conscientiae, but 
in foro externa, seu contentioso. The advice Karrjyopiav /xfi 
napaSixov is only intelligible as addressed to a Judge ; 
and thus the text supposes an accuser and an accused 
person, while it mentions witnesses {/Mprvpis). The 
accuser would not go before the Bishop as Judge, unless 
the Bishop had some power of punishing the guilty 
party or of compelling him to do right, — some kind 
of (morally) coercive power. Here then we have an 
Apostolic and primitive provision for Church discipline. 
Tert. Apolog. c. 39: 'Ibidem etiam exhortationes, casti- 
gationes et censura divina. Nam et judicatur magno 
cum pondere, ut apud certos de Dei conspectu.'] 

Rule I. Resjoecting the admission of a charge against 
a presbyter. No charge against a presbyter is to be 
entertained by Timothy, unless it be made on the 
authority of (eTrt) two or three witnesses (ver. 19). 



Chapter v. 19-21 65 

Rule 2. Respecting the publicity of ecclesiastical cen- 
sures. Convicted sinners, whether presbyters or not, 
are to be publicly censured {h'^a-niov ttuvtoov eAeyxe), 
that other persons may be withheld from imitating 
them by a wholesome fear (ver. 20). 

Rule 3. Respecting absolute iinjjartiality in the judge. 
(Introduced by an appeal to the Presence (hiafxaprvpofxai 
ivwTTLoi') of God, Jesus Christ, and the unfallen angels.) 
The foregoing Rules (raCra) must be observed, without 
prejudice against any man {x<^P^'-^ TipoKp'uxaros), as also 
without partiality in favour of any man (/xrjSev -noi&v 
Kara -npoa-Kkicnv) (ver. 2l). 



[Obs. I. The I'ule (ver. 19^ that two or three witnesses must 
be ready to substantiate a charge before it can be inves- 
tigated is based on Deut. xix. 15 : 'One witness shall not 
rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, 
in any sin that he sinneth : at the mouth of two 
witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall 
the matter be established.' By Deut. xvii. 6 it was 
provided in particular that no conviction for murder 
could take place, unless at the mouth of two or three 
witnesses. Our Lord applies this principle to the private 
settlement of quarrels (St. Mat. xviii. 16 ; and St. Paul 
to the conduct of criminal accusations, whether before 
himself (2 Cor. xiii. i) or, as here, before his delegates. 
Cf. St. John viii. 17. firl fiaprvpuv, resting on witnesses ; 
in quotations, 2 Cor. xiii. i, km aTojxaTos fiaprvpaiv ; 
Heb. X. 28, fTTi fiapTvai. For the pleonastic negation 
I«t3s el ftri, see Lobeck, Phryn. p. 459 ; Winer, Gr. N. T. 
P- 757-] 

[Obs. 2. Although the rule (ver. 20) that convicted sinners 
are to be censured publicly is of general application, the 
context leads us to supply wpeff/Si/rfpovs after tovs ap.ap- 
TOLVovTai. They are thus contrasted w^ith ol itaKais 
■npoeffToiTts vpealivTfpoi (ver. 17). In the same way 
iravToiv and ol \oinoi mean primarily presbyters, then 
other Christians. The words evuniov ttclvtoiv do not 

F 



66 The First Epistle to Timothy 



traverse our Lord's precept in St. Mat. xviii. 15, (kfj^ov 
avTov fiera^v aov Kal aiirov fxuvov. For in the present 
passage (i) Timothy is regarded not as a private person, 
but as a public Church officer, invested v^ith judicial 
authority ; and (3) something more than a single offence 
is implied by tovs afiapravovras, while (3) in the absence 
of els ai (St. Mat. xviii. 15), or some equivalent expression 
having limiting force, afxapjavtiv would be sin against 
God. Observe that the preventive object of punishment 
is recognized in "iva oi Koi-nol (po^ov Ix'*"'''-] 

[Obs. 3. The rule (ver. 21) enjoining strict impartiality 011 
a bishop as judge is stated, after a solemn reference to 
unseen but present witnesses : Siaftaprvponai is stronger 
than ftaprvpofiai, and only found in this sense at 2 Tim. 
ii. 14, iv. I. St. Paul names (i) God, who is everywhere, 
and who knows all ; (2) Christ Jesus, the future Judge 
of all earthly judges ; and ,3) the (k\(ictoi d-yyi^oi. It 
seems less probable that tKKtKToi here is used (a) as an 
ornamental epithet in the sense of evTtfioi (i St. Pet. ii. 4), 
or (b) of the guardian-angels of particular Churches, 
whose earthly representatives are the bishops (Rev. ii. i, 
&c.), than (e) of the unfallen angels who kept their first 
estate (2 St. Pet. ii. 4 ; St. Jude 6), who will accompany 
the future Judge (St. Jude 14). These now behold what 
passes on earth in the Church of Christ (Eph. iii. 10), 
while they silently prepare for the judgement. The 
two words which describe opposite sins against the 
virtue of Justice, vpuKpi^a and irpooKXiai^, prejudice 
against, or in favour of, an accused person, are an. Xty. 
in the N. T.] 

[Obs. 4. For the exercise of the judicial power of the 
Episcopate in the third century, the Apostolical Con- 
stitutions is a work of much interest (see Book II. 
II, 12, 37, 38, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48). It seems fi'om c. 47, 
that causes were to be heard on Monday in each week, 
that there might be time for effecting reconciliations 
before the next Lord's Day. See also St. Cyprian's Letter 
to Cornelius, a.d. 252, on the subject of the trial of 
Privatus and others, Ep. 59 (Hartel's ed.). On the trial 
of bishops themselves, see Canon. Apost. 74 ; and on 
the non-admittance of heretical evidence against them. 
Can. 75.] 



Chapter v. 22-25 67 

III. Ordination of Presbyters and other Ministers of the 
Church (vv. 22-25). 

[Obs. x^'pay emTLdei is understood by Hammond, De Wette, 
Ellicott, and others, of the reconciliation of penitents, as being 
more in keeping with the preceding warnings. But 
although x<'po06(r£o was used for this purpose in post- 
Apostolic times (St. Cyprian, Ep. 74 ; Concil. Nic. Ciin. 
8; Eus. i7. £. vii. 2; Bingham, Aniiq. xviii. 2. i), the 
Scriptural references to it connect it with Ordination, 
whether of Deacons or Presbyters (Acts vi. 6, xiii. 3 ; 
2 Tim. i. 6^ ; and it is so taken by St. Chrysostom and 
the other Greek commentators.] 

Rule I. Against hurried Ordinations. Ordain no man 
hurriedly (rax ecos); and do not (by ordaining unworthy 
persons) become thyself responsible for other men's 
sins (ver. 22 a). 

Rule 2. Respecting Timothy s personal purity. (Having 
thus to inquire into and judge the lives of others,) keep 
thyself pure (ayvov). (Yet think not that purity will 
be best secured by the rules of Essenic asceticism.) 
Be no longer a water-drinker (jurjKert vbpo-noTei); but 
make use of a little wine, on account of thy weak 
digestion (hta tov aTojxaxov) and constant ailments 
(vv. 22 h, 23). 

Rule 3. Concerning a true appreciation of the character 
of Candidates for Ordination. Remember thai p)rima 
facie appearances, whether of good or of evil in men, 
are apt to mislead (vv. 24, 25). 



F % 



68 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



Accordingly, 
in order to . 
avoid 



la. while some men's\ 
sins (a) are crying 
and open (Trpo'SrjXoi), 
and (^) lead the 
way to 



I. Sb falsely 
favourable 
estirtiate, \ h. some men's sins are ( 



reflect that 



judgement, 

Kpicnv 

(ver. 24). 



2. a falsely 
unfavour- 
able 
estimate, 
reflect that 



are 



such 



also [ (a) hidden, 

and] (/3) follow the 

perpetrator [t-naKo- 
\ \ov6ov(nv) to 
/ a. some good works 

matters of notoriety (irpobrjka), 
(as to dispense with the need 
of any further investigation 
into the character of the agent). 

b. other good works are hidden 
from public observation (to. 
dAXtoj €xovTa), and yet, upon in- 
vestigation, they cannot remain 
concealed (ver. 25). 



[Obs. I. The rule against hasty Ordinations is expanded in 
the case of deacons, iii.io, Koi ovrot S« 5oKifj.a(iff9w(Tav irpuiTov, 
eira SiaKoveiTwaav, dveyK^TjToi ovres. For this Som/xTj, time 
was necessary ; hence ij.r]5(vt rax(0js. St. Chrysostom 
paraphrases : iroKXaKis TrfpiaKeipaixevos nal aKpi^uis e^irdaas. 
On tlie nature of this inquiry, as understood in the 
ancient Church, see Bingham, Antiq. iv. 3. The motive 
for not hastening Ordinations, without due inquiry into 
the character of the Ordinands, is i^rjSe koivuivu dixapriai^ 
dWoTpiais. By ordaining sinful persons, Timothy would 
make himself partly responsible for their sins, so far as 
these affected the well-being of the Church. Had he not 
ordained them, the mischief done by their sins would 
have been much less considerable. St. Chrysostom : 
ov -yap aKivSvyov to -npa-ypa- tujv yap ■fjfj.apT'qt^ei'WV tKuyw 
Kai av Uktjv v(p4^(is, 6 rfiv dpxh^ irapaax^v.'l 



Chapter v. 24, 25 69 



[Obs. 2. The rule aeawroc arfvhv -rqpfi (ver. 22 6) is naturally 
suggested by the duty of judging the characters of 
others. Observe the position of fftavrov^ and its anti- 
thetical relation to aXXorpiais. When St. Paul had 
ordained Timothy, the latter was a-^vos : hence atavrov 
T^pu. The precept (ver. 23) nrjKfn vSpovSru is at first 
sight unconnected with the preceding or following 
context ; and it has been suggested that St. Paul wrote 
it down when it occurred to him, lest he should forget 
it. But the train of thought is natural, although the 
sentences are abrupt. In his efforts after ayvda, Timothy 
might have adopted the Essenic precept to drink only 
water, Philo, De Vit. Cont § 4. The general drift of the 
Apostle's references to wine was to notice the danger 
of its abuse by the ministers of the Church (i Tim. iii. 3, 
fx^ irdpoivov ; ibid. 8, firj otvo) itoWZ Trpo(jexo^'''°-^)-> or by 
elderly women (Tit. ii. 3, ixf] oiv<v iroWqi SeSovKw/iivas)^ 
or by the faithful generally (Rom. xiii. 13 ; Gal. v. 21 ; 
and compare i St. Pet. iv. 3) ; and there were distinct 
precepts in the O. T. (Lev. x. 9; Ezek. xliv. 21), and 
examples such as that of St. John the Baptist (St. Luke 
i. 15), which must have had their weight. But the 
Apostle will have Timothy, (i) negatively, be no longer 
a water-drinker — (y^po-noTtiv must not be confounded with 
vZwp iriviLv, Winer, Gr. N. T. p. 624) — and so, (2) positively^ 
use a little wine on grounds of health. The ancients 
attributed indigestion to continuous vSporroaiai : on the 
other hand, Plin. Hist. Nat. xxiii. 22, * Vino modico nervi 
juvantur, copiosiore laeduntur : sic et oculi : stomachus 
recreatur, appetentia ciborum invitatiir.' Timothy was 
often an invalid {irvitvas dadtveias), and could not attempt 
an ascetic rule with impunity.] 

[Obs. 3. The double rule (w. 24, 25) for the diagnosis of 
character is stated in very general terms. The words 
Kpiaiv and KpvPTJvat oh dwarai may refer to a human 
inquiry into charactei", such as might precede Ordina- 
tion, or to the Last Judgement of all men by God. But 
the general character of the precept, which gives it sudi 
wide applicability, does not forfeit its immediate con- 
nexion with ver. 22. It is, in fact, a rule which explains 
the necessity for the earlier rule against hasty Ordina- 
tions. Since there are such difficulties in accurately 
appreciating character, a bishop must act with delibeia- 
tion. In ver. 24 the contrast is between (i) persons, 
[a) rivujv dv0 pwTtctiv , and (6) rial St ; (2) sins, (a) apiapTiai 



yo The First Epistle to Timothy 

irp65r]\ot . . . npodyovcrai, and (b) afxapriai kiraKokovOovaiv. 
In ver. 25 the contrast is not between persons, but 
between two kinds of good works (as evidencing 
character), (a) ra tpya to KaXa ■npobrjXa, and {h) to. epya 
TO, a\A.ojs exof'^'O; i-G- not TrpodTjka. In ver. 24, iTpodyovijai 
is used as at i. 18. In ver. 24, rd aWus exovra cannot 
be referred to Ka\d, without destroying the parallelism. 
Observe that the Kpiais takes note not merely of evil, 
but of good in character. Omission of good is not less 
serious than commission of evil.] 

4. Slaves {ocroL vTTo (vyov SovXoi) (vi. i, 2). 

[Obs. Description, oaoi vnd ^vyov SovKoi must be rendered, 
* So many as are under the yoke, as slaves ' ; not ' slaves 
under the yoke.' SovKoi is, in fact, an explanatory 
predicate appended to vtto ^vyov. Human slaves are 
introduced as a species of a larger class of beings who 
are v-no ^vyuv.^ 

Rule I. (Case of slaves under [any, probably] heathen 
masters.) The slave must deem his master (bea-Koi-qs) 
worthy of every kind of honour that is due to him 
(ver. i). 
§ Reason. The Name (i.e. the true revelation) of God 
and the Apostolic Doctrine would be evil spoken of 
(as encouraging social insuboi'dination), if Christian 
slaves in pagan families acted otherwise (ver. i). 

Rule 2. (Case of slaves under Chridian viasters). 

,a. [negatively] must not so presume upon the fact 
that the masters are their own brethren in 
Christ, as to show them any want of respect ; 
but (ver. 2) 

Slaves ( h. [positively) must yield service all the more 
willingly, precisely because the masters who 
are partakers in the benefit (evepyeo-ta) of the 
slaves' labour are also believing Christians and 
objects of God's especial love (ver. 2). 



Chapter vl. i, 2 71 

§ Timothy is to teach Christian slaves the foregoing duties 
(ravTo), and to exhort them to corresponding practice 
(ver. 26). 

[Obs. I. The positions and duties of slaves and masters are 
treated of by St. Paul in Eph. vi. 5-9 ; Col. iii. 22 — iv. i ; 
Titus ii. 9, 10 ; especially i Cor. vii. 21 : and by St. Peter 
in I Pet. ii. 18, on houseliold slaves, oiKtrai. The Apostles 
endeavour to reconcile slaves to accept their lot, since 
time is short, and salvation can be worked out in any 
condition of life ; and in another world it will not 
much matter what a man's outward condition in this 
has been. It was not the business of Christianity to 
inaugurate a revolution, or to sanction such risings as 
those of Eunus in Sicily with two hundred thousand 
slaves (Diod. Sic, Fragm. 34. 2) ; or of Spartacus in Italy, 
with seventy thousand. Every subject of the empire 
remembered the slaves in the armies of Catilina and 
Clodius (Sail. Catilina, 30 ; Cic. Pro Domo, 42 ; Pro Caeliu, 32 ; 
Pro Plancio, 36), when Rome was threatened with con- 
flagration and massacre ; and in the fleet of Sextus 
Pompeius ; and the bands of brigands, consisting of 
escaped slaves, which infested Italy.] 

[Obs. 2. On the other hand, Christianity did teach that 
there was no real difference before God between the 
bondman and the free, — none therefore in the Church 
of Christ. Gal. iii. 28. And it was not unnatural that 
the Christian slave should think that he might at once 
act upon this equality by refusing obedience to his 
master. The Therapeutae and Essenes had taught thus. 
But the Apostles proposed to remedy the evil, not 
by a sudden and violent, but by a gradual and moral 
process. Already the natural justice of heathen legis- 
lators had done something to improve the condition of 
a slave. The lex Cornelia passed by Sylla, b. c. 82, made 
killing a slave punishable as homicide, whether by 
death or exile. The lex Petronia forbade masters to 
expose their slaves to contests with wild beasts. Hadrian 
afterwards required the sanction of a magistrate before 
death was inflicted. Constantine only permitted mode- 
rate corporal punishment to be inflicted ; Justinian 
retained the enactment. Cod. Just. IX. xiv., Kruger, 
Corp. Jur. Civ. vol. ii. p. 377. St. Paul's pleadings for the 
elave Onesimus with his master Philemon are typical of 



72 The First Epistle to Timothy 



the historical action of the Church. Admitted, not 
merely to baptism and Christian worship, but to the 
ranks of the Christian Clergy, the Christian slave 
soon occupied within the Church a position which had 
little in common with that of the heathen slave. Some 
slaves, like Blandina of Lyons (a. d. 177), were martyrs : 
and the moral freedom which was asserted by martyrdom 
raised the slave-class indefinitely. Others, like Callistus, 
Bishop of Rome a. d. 217-222, attained to leading 
positions in the Christian hierarchy. The recognized 
sanctity of marriage between Christian slaves made 
another and a vast difference in their condition. At 
last came legislation, first of the Councils, then of the 
Christian Emperors, to put an end to the evil. On the 
slavery of the ancient world, see DoUinger, Keid. und 
Jud. ix. ii. 3; Winer, R. W. B. in voce; Wallon, Hisioire 
de I'Esdavage dansl'Antiquite; Allard, Les Esclaves Chretiens.'\ 
[Obs. 3. In vv. I and 2 the harsh hiairorris occurs instead 
of the usual milder Kvpios, as corresponding with Ind 
^vyov. In ver. 2, ol avTiKafxPavonevoi (as the article shows) 
is the subject of the proposition, ttkttoI koi dyaTnjToi the 
predicate. And by dvTiKa/x^avoixfvoi are meant the 
masters, not the slaves ; as by t^s fvtpyeaias is meant 
not benevolent action of the masters towards the slaves, 
but the beneficial service of the slave rendered to the 
master. There is no reason for considering ttjs (i/tp- 
yeaias, ' the Benefit of Redemption ' ; since in the N. T, 
this is termed x^P'^- avTiXajx^avtaOai, which in St. Luke 
i. 54, Acts XX. 35, means to help, must here, more nearly 
in keeping with its classical sense of 'to take part in,' 
mean to ' partake of reciprocally ' — to enjoy. See 
EUicott in loc] 

5. Teachers of a system which is at issue with the 

Apostolic Doctrine (iTepoSidaa-KaXoCyTis) (w. 3-10). 

[Obs. The connexion between this and the preceding 
paragraph on the slaves is intimate. The SiSaaKoXia 
(ver. i) of the Apostles suggests the eTtpodidaaKoXovvrts 
who contradicted it. It seems probable that these 
teachers were directly opposed to the Apostle on the 
question of the duty of a Christian slave ; since the 
profession of Christianity, in their eyes, was chiefly 
valuable as a means of acquiring position or wealth 
{yofii^ovTQjv TTopia/xov (hat rr/v ixxjifitiav, ver. 5). That 



Chapter vi. 3 



73 



they are the same teachers as those referred to in i Tim. 
i. 4-6, may be inferred from the allusion to (rjTTjafis koI 
Xoyoi^axias, ver. 4 ; but their teaching must not be 
identified with the still future, although impending, 
development of error, which was foretold by the 
Christian prophets, i Tim. iv. 1-3. In i Tim. i. 4-6, the 
speculative side of their position is chiefly referred to ; 
while here its practical and social side is challenged by 
the Apostle. After describing a typical specimen of 
these teachers (rts, ver. 3) in a general and compre- 
hensive manner (vv. 3-5), the Apostle addresses him- 
self to one favourite opinion of the school, viz. wopianuy 
dvai rfjv emtPtiau, which he refutes at length in the 
remaining part of the paragraph (vv. 6-10).] 

I. General description of the neiu Teachers in Epkesus 
(vv. 3-5). 

[Obs. As usual, the Apostle does not name the persons 
whom he is condemning ; he draws a picture of a school 
or class of teachers, — a picture to which, in all pro- 
bability, no individual corresponded in every respect.] 

The (typical) new teacher is described 



I. by his 

relation 

to the 
Aposto- 
lical 
Doctrine: 



a. positively he plays at being a teacher 
of something different from it, krepobi- 
SacTKaAei (ver. 3). 

i. in its substance : morally 
/ healthy discourse (iiyiat- 
vovaL Xoyots) (ver. 3). 
ii. in its source : a doctrine 
which comes from our 
Lord Jesus Christ {ge7i. 
orig.) (speaking through 
His Apostles) (ver. 3). 
iii. in its standard : a doc- 
trine which corresponds 
to the longings and needs 
of piety [ttj KttT (vaefiaav 
bibaa-KaXiq) (ver. 3). 



b. negatively 
he cannot be 
thought to 
approach (fx?) 
TTpoaepxerai,) 
it ; being as 
it is 



74 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



2. by his 

own 
moral and 

rtiental 
condition : 

he is 



a. beclouded with self-conceit (rerv^corat) 
(ver. 4). 

b. without real knowledge of the things of 
faith [}xr]h\v (Tnardixevos) (ver. 4). 

/ X. mere inquiries (as distinct 

c. morbidly from Truth), C»?r7}o-ets (ver. 4). 
busy about - ii. debates about words (as 
(vo(TO)v TTepC) distinct from realities), \oyo- 

/xaxm? (ver. 4). 
/«. secret annoyance (at the success of pro- 
fessional rivals) ((f)66vos) (ver, 4). 

/i. speaking against others 

(j3\aa(pri[x(ai) (ver. 4). 
ii. or, at least, evil sus- 
picions of others (viroVoiat 
TToi'-qpai) (ver. 4). 

/a. corrupted in 



3. by the 

results 

of his 

exertions: 

about 

and 

Aoyo/xa)(tat 

which 

lead to 

yiveTai) 



b. quarrelling 
(epts), which 
takes the 
forms of 



iii. perhaps 
even con- 
tinued 
collisions 
(biairapa- 
Tpi^a'i) 
between 

men 
who are 



mind (8t€- 
4)6apixev(t)VTdv 
vovv) (ver. 5). 

b. deprived of 
the truth (d- 
irea-Tepripei'MV 

(ver. 5). 

c. thinking 
that a pious 

\ life is a 
means of gain 

(^VOlXt^OVTCOV TTopta-- 

fibv etvai ttjv 
ev(Te^€Lav) 
(ver. 5). 



Chapter vl. 4, 5 75 



[Obs. I. As a description of the relatimi of the new teachers 
to the Apostolic Doctrine (ver. 3), the word fTtpoStSaffKaXu 
is suggested by rj St5aaita\ia (ver. i) : it had been already 
employed at i. 3. irpoaepxecrOai, when used with an 
abstract substantive, denotes attention, or even assent 
to a principle or doctrine. Compare Acts x. 28, and the 
substantive Trpoa-qXvToi. With vyiaivovai \6yois compare 
iyiaivovaa SiSaff/caXia, i Tim. i. 10 ; Tit. i. 9 ; \6yos vyiris, 
Tit. ii. 8. ^ Kar' (vat^iiav diSaaKaXia means the doctrine 
which corresponds to a devout life. There were many 
SiSaffKaXiai abroad which did nothing of the kind. Com- 
pare TO T^s evae^eias fxvCT-qpiov, i Tim. iii. 16 ; aXiidtia t] 
Kar tvai^tiav, Tit. i. i. The new teaching at Ephesus 
yielded intellectual amusement ; but it had nothing to 
do with the Truth which came from Christ on the one 
hand, nor on the other had it any relation to the moral 
and spiritual improvement of its adherents.] 

[Obs. 2. The moral characteristics (ver. 4) of the irepoSidaff- 
KaXSjv reveal the true source of his en-ors. He is jxr^^tv 
fniaTCLfievos, because miKpcuTai. This last word occurs 
in iii. 6, and 2 Tim. iii. 4. voauv is the antithesis to 
vyiaivovai \6yois, ver. 3. voadv ittpi with ace. denotes 
morbid activity moving round questions, &c. : with gen. it 
would mean simply concerning them. For (rjTr](Teis, see 
ch. i. 4. The substantive Xcyofiaxiai occurs only here 
in N. T. : Xoyofiaxftv, at 2 Tim. ii. 14. The word belongs 
to later Greek.] 

[Obs. 3. In discussing the practical results of this morbid 
interest of the new teachers in ^rjriiaus and Xoyofiaxiai, 
St. Chrys. says that God is the object of the PKaacpTjfxiat, 
and the i/nvvoiai irovrjpai. The context seems to suggest 
that fellow-men are the more immediate objects of these 
sinful words and thoughts ; the msms loquendi admits this. 
diaTiaparpi^ai (N A D F G L majority of MSS.) means 
persevering conflicts ; the first prep, in composition 
governs the meaning of the word, Winer, Gr. N. T. 
p. 126, — the reading of the text. rec. irapaStaTpt^ai would 
have meant ' misplaced disputings.' These conflicts 
occur between the new teachers and their adherents, 
who are accordingly, by a reflex turn of the Apostle's 
thought, again described in ver. 5. They are men of 
corrupt vovs, i. e. ' mind,' including will as well as 
thought ; see Delitzsch, Bibl. Psychology, iv. 5. As a con- 
sequence of this they are in the condition of having had 



76 The First Epistle to Timothy 



the Truth taken from them {ainaTeprjuivoi rij^ dK^eeias), 
in consequence of their having thrust from them a good 
conscience, i. 19 ; or themselves turned away from it, 
dvoffTpf<pofx4vcoy, Tit. i. 14. In particular they hold the 
opinion (not that 'gain is godliness,' but) that a life 
of devotion is to be prized as a means for gaining 
wealth or position. This opinion was probably pressed 
by them upon the Christian slaves (ver. 2) as a reason 
for dissatisfaction with their position ; but it also, in 
a wealthy and luxurious city such as Ephesus, had 
a much larger application, and was calculated to do 
great mischief. The Apostle accordingly selects it from 
among the other errors of the new teachers for elaborate 
refutation (w. 6-10).] 

[Obs. 4. The words a<piaTaao ditb rwv toiovtwv do not occur 
in N A D* F G, 17 67** 93. They are probably a later 
insertion of some copyist, who had failed to observe that 
the apodosis of the sentence (vv. 3-5) begins at rtri- 
<po}Tai, ver. 4 ; and had thus endeavoured to complete 
the construction.] 



II. Digression on one erroneous opinion of the new teachers 
in Ephesus to the effect that a devout life is to he valued 
as a means of earthly gain (vv. 6-10). 

[Obs. r. In selecting one particular error for careful re- 
futation, and thus making a digression in order to 
refute it, the Apostle repeats the method pursued at 
ch. iv. 3-5, where the pseudo-ascetic precept aTrixfaBai 
fipcofiArwv of the predicted but yet future Apostasy is 
criticized in detail, before the general subject is 
resumed.] 

[Obs. 2. In refuting the proposition -nopiafidv ehai t^u 
eiffePeiav, the Apostle begins with a rhetorical t-navop- 
ewffts. 'Eleganter et non sine ironica correetione in 
contrarium sensum eadem verba retorquet,' Calv. If 
it is not true that a devout life is valuable as a means 
of gain, it is true that devotion with contentedness is 
a great means of gain, both here and hereafter. Remark 
the play upon nopi(Tn6s, which in ver. 5 means material 
gain, and in ver. 6 spiritual or moral gain.] 



Chapter vi. 6 77 

Restatement of the opinion of the Ephesian teachers about 
c^o-e/3eta, together with the modifications necessary to 
make it true (ver. 6). 

A devout life, accompanied by contentedness, is great 
(moral and spiritual) gain (ver. 6). 

[Obs. The higher conscience of paganism condemned the 
mercenary view of devotion which was advocated at 
Ephesus. Seneca, for instance, notices those ' qui 
philosophiam velut aliquod artificium venale didicerunt ' 
{Ep. 108 \ And the heathen world understood that to 
be content was to be really wealthy ; while to be alwaj's 
seeking earthly wealth was to be poor. Thus Cicero, 
Paradox. 6, ' Non aestimatione census, verum victu atque 
cultu terminatur pecuniae modus. Non esse cupidum 
pecunia est ; non esse emacem, vectigal est ; contentum 
vero suis rebus esse maximae sunt certissimaeque 
divitiae,' cf. Hor. Od. iv. 9. 45. But heathen wisdom 
would have said that contentedness was itself gain, with 
or without the accompaniment of ' devotion.' St. Paul 
says that 'devotion' is gain, when accompanied by 
' contentedness.' With St. Paul the moral virtue of 
' contentedness ' is supplementary to ' devotion ' : in 
heathen ethics 'contentedness' might have dispensed 
with ' devotion ' altogether. The reason is because 
heathenism conceives of man as finding perfect satis- 
faction in himself, and so resents a desire for external 
objects as interfering with this proud sense of self- 
satisfaction. St. Paul knows that man is only satisfied 
in God ; and therefore devotion to God is the first 
condition of this true satisfaction, and contentedness 
with an earthly lot the second, avrap/ctia occurs at 
2 Cor. ix. 8 in the (objective) sense of ' sufficiency ' : 
avTapKTjs, at Phil. iv. 11, in that of 'content,' the- 
meaning which it must have here. St. Paul con- 
templates a class of persons who might be ' devout,' 
yet ' discontented.' In their case evae^fia would not 
be iTopiaixos : its advantages would be forfeited by the 
inconsistency. The range of iropiffpLos here is not con- 
fined to time.] 

Proof of the advantage of devotion accompanied by con- 
tentedness with present circumstances (vv. 7-10). 



78 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



Arg. I. From the precarious tenure of all earthly 
possessions. As man brings nothing into the world 
at his birth, so, at his death, he mud leave everything 
behind him. That only is really ' gained ' which will 

»-not be given up when he dies (ver. 7). 

Tacit objection. ' While we are in this life, we do need, 

at the least, food and clothing.' 
Answer. Granted. But [U) if we have them, we shall 

(must) be satisfied (apKeaOija-oixcOa) (ver. 8). 

Arg. 2. From the moral ruin which awaits those who 
are set upon acquiring wealth {ol jSovAo/xei^oi irkovrdv) 
(ver. 9). 

'a. TTeLpa(r[x6v, the inducement to sacri- 
fice duty and conscience to the 
pursuit of wealth (ver. 9). 
b. -nayiha, the ensnaring power of con- 
nexions, which the pursuit of wealth 
1 renders necessary (ver. 9). 
ci. viewed /'a. numerous, TroAAas (ver. 9). 
in them- ) /3. foolish, avoriTovs (ver. 9). 
selves y. injurious, ^Xaj3epds 
are ^ (ver. 9). 
b. since (in ' 

their effects) «. destruction in this 

they(atTtves) I world (oKedpov) (ver. 9). 

doengulph ^.perdition in the next 

men in 



Those 

who are 

bent upon 

getting 

rich fall 

into 

(fpTTilTTOV- 

(Tiv els) 
dangers 



I. with- 
out 
them, 
viz. 



2. within 
them, < 
viz. 

eTTidvpLLas, 
desires, 
, which 



(dTTcoAetar) (ver. 9). 



Arg. 3. From the mischievous fertility of (t)i\apyvpCa. 
It is a root of all the evils which mar human life 
(ver. 10 a). 



Chapter vi. 7-10 79 

Arg. 4. From (recent) experience (ver. 10 h). 
Theope^t9|i. abandonment of the True Faith {air^iiXain]- 
after 6if]crav a-nb ttjs TTtorecos). 

wealth ']2. much self-inflicted agony of conscience (kav- 
has led to tows TiepU-neipav ohvvai's TioWah) (ver. lo //). 

[Obs. I. The closing words of the statement in ver. 7 aro 
a reason {yap) for /iera avTapKfias in ver. 6 ; while further 
ov5t (^(vf-fKetv Ti SvvafJLfOa is in correspondence to ovSti/ 
iiarjvtyKajjLiv. The saying is based on such passages as 
Job i. 21 ; Eccles. v. 14; Ps. xlix. 17; Prov. xxvii. 24. 
It is a truth of experience which the heathen felt, 
Seneca, Ep. 102. 'Excutit natura redeuntem, sicut 
intrantem. Non licet plus auferre quam intuleris.' 
Hor. Od. II. xiv. 21 — 

' Linquenda tellus et domus ct placens 
Uxor : neque harum, quas colis, arborum 
Te, praeter invisas cupressos, 

Ulla brevem dominum sequetur.'] 
[Obs. 2. In ver. 8 it is a mistake to treat U as if used for 
GUI' (De Wette) or /cat. It points to an objection, present 
to the Apostle's mind, but not noticed, and arising in 
consequence of the statement ovh\ f^eveyKfiv ti SwdnfOa. 
'If these words are pressed,' the objector thinks, 'we 
ought not to care for either food or clothing ; and yet 
we cannot do without them.' The Apostle tacitly admits 
that food and clothing are necessary ; but then he adds, 
' we must be content with these.' Siarpofr] occurs in 
I Mace. vi. 49 ; oKi-rraana, while it may refer to shelter, 
• is more probably clothing, Arist. Pol. iv (vii\ 17 ; the two 
words are aw. ^€7. in the N. T. In apKiaerjauixida, observe 
the fut. pass, for the Jut. mid. and the imperatival force 
of the fut. as at St. Mat. v. 48. Here, too, the Apostle 
might claim heathen moralists as his allies. Seneca, 
ad Helviam, 9, * Corporis desideria exigua sunt ; frigus 
submovere vult, alimentis famem ac sitim extinguere : 
quicquid extra concupiscitur, vitiis non usibus laboratur.' 
So Hor. Sat. I. ii. 6 : 

'Frigus quo duramque famem depellere possit.' 
Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 316. St. Paul goes beyond this in his 
own practice, Phil. iv. 11, eyoi ittaBov iv oh dfu avrdpicrji 
elvai, in accordance with the temper enjoined by our 
Lord, St. Mat. vi. 25-34.] 
[Obs. 3. The 0ov\6n(voi tiKovtuv (ver. 9) are introduced as 



8o The First Epistle to Timothy 



in contrast (Ss) to contented Christians (dpKeaOrjaufieOa) 
(ver. 8). St. Chrysostom observes that the Apostle does 
not saj' 01 nXovTuvvTfs, but ol l3ov\6ixfvoi irXovretv. The 
emOvjxiai into which these persons fall are said to be 
dvorjToi, since they will not stand the test of reason, and 
PKa0fpai. This last epithet is justified by the clause 
which follows: aiTivts, k.t.\. These kmOvfiiai do sub- 
merge men {PvBi^ovai, St. Luke v. 7 ; 2 Mace. xii. 4) in 
the ocean of destruction (oKeOpov) and perdition (dnw- 
\eiav). oKfdpos may be that of body or soul ; it is 
generally used by St. Paul (i Cor. v. 5 ; i Thess. v. 3),^ 
of temporal destruction : when it means more, aidivios 
is added, 2 Thess. i. 9. On the other hand, diroaXeia 
means final ruin hereafter, Phil. i. 28 (opp. to 17 aouTrjpia, 
iii, 19). For the moral fact insisted on, see Juvenal, 
Sat. xiv. 176 : — 

' Nam dives qui fieri vult 
Et cito vult fieri. Sed quae reverentia legum ? 
Quis metus aut pudor est umquam properantis avari ? ' 
Seneca, Ep. 87, 'Dum divitias consequi volumus, in 
mala multa incidimus, — Inflant animos, superbiam 
pariunt, invidiam contrahunt, et eo usque mentem 
alienant, ut fama pecuniae nos etiam nocitura delectet.'] 

[Obs. 4. Relation of love of money to other vices (ver. 10 a). 
<pi\opyvpia, the subst., is an. Xey. in N. T. ; the adj. is 
applied to the Pharisees (St. Luke xvi. 14), and to the — 
men of the last times (2 Tim. iii. 2). It is a specific- 
form of the more general and inclusive sin ir\eov€^ia. 
It is a root of all evils. According to the Vulgate text of 
Ecclus. X. 13 pride is called the beginning of sin. Hence 
St. Augustine says that pride is the genus, love of money 
the species, De Gen. ad Litt. xi. 15. Compare Vii'g. Aen. iii. 
56, 'Quid non mortalia pectora cogis, auri sacra fames !'] 

[Obs. 5. Ruinous effects of love of money shown from the 
experience of the Church (ver. 10 b). It had led to 
apostasies from the faith, and to much self-inflicted 
mental suffering. Grammatically, ^s must refer to 
<j)i\apyvpia, and thus, at first sight, makes an ope^is the 
object of opeyofievoi. In the Apostle's condensed style, 
he thinks of dpyvpLov in <pi\ap-/vpia as the object of the 
dptyoufvoi : but he does not pause to disengage it from 
the other idea with which it is associated in composition. 
With dirfTrKavrjOrjaav, compare i. 19 ; iv. i ; v. 15. The oSvvai, -.. 
with which these unhappy persons pierced themselves 
through, were probably remorseful pains of conscience.] 



IV 



Epilogue. Four parting Exhortations to 
Timothy, su^nming up the leading practical 
lessons of the Epistle (vi. 11-21). 

[Obs. In introducing these, St. Paul sharply distinguishes 
between Timothy and the Ephesian (piXapyvpoi {rives, 
ver. 10), whether teachers or taught, by aii St. This 
distinction is further heightened by the address a dv- 
OpwiTf Qeov. Such an address warrants the earnest and 
stern exhortations which follow, by reminding Timothy 
of his true character. The title D"'ri?N~CJ'"'X was given 
in the 0. T. to prophets, as the friends and ambassadors 
of God ; i Sam. ix. 6 ; i Kings xii. 22, xiii. i, 4, 5 sqq. ; 
2 Kings iv. 7 ; Psalm xc. title. Cf. 2 St. Pet. i. 21. It 
passed naturally to Christians, especially to Christian 
evangelists and bishops. As prophecy was the inspired 
utterance of dno Qeov dvOpcuiroi (2 St. Pet. i. 21), so the 
object of all Scripture is iva dprios 77 6 rov Qeov dvOpamos, 
irpbs irdv epyov dyaOov f^rjpTi(jfi(vos (2 Tim, iii. 17). It 
certainly would seem to be here addressed to Timothy, 
as carrying on the prophetical office of the Church of 
Christ.] 



82 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



2. (posi- 
tively) ■<, 



1. the soul's 
right relation 
to God, 



Exhortation i. To maintain strenuous moral activity 

(VV. II-I2). 

Timothy is bidden 

I. {negatively) to fly from (^evye) the love of money, and 
all that it involves {ravTa, vv. 6-io) (ver. ii). 

f a. as the perfect 
Moral Being 
/ {hiKaio(Tvvr]v) 

(ver. ii) 
/3. as the Su- 
preme Object 
of devotion 
{^vai^^iav) 
a.foUoiu \ (ver. ii), 

up (8ia)Ke) ii, the deepest / a. ttlo-tlv 

six I moving prin- J (ver. ii). 

virtues, ^ ciples of the /3. aydir-qv 
providing Christian Life, v (ver. ii). 

for / a. patience under 

provocation 

(vTTOlXOV^v) 



iii. the true 

temper in 

which to deal 

with 

opponents. 



(ver. ii). 

(3. mildness of 

feeling 

(■npavTrddeiav) 

(ver. ii), 

6. struggle on (aycDviCov) in the honourable 
contest which faith carries on (against the 
world) (ver. 12). 
c. lay hold /i. to this life Timothy was called 
[kKXr\6r]^) at his baptism (ver, 12). 
ii. in view of this life he had made 
the glorious confession of faith 
{Tr]v KaXrjv ojxoXoyiav) before many 
, witnesses (ver. 12). 



on 
(eTTiAajSoC) 
the eter- 
nal life, 
since 



Chapter vi. ii, 12 83 



[Obs. I. The virtues (ver. ii) which Timothy is to endeavour 
to win by pursuit (SiwAreii/.Deut.xvi.ao, LXX; Rom.xii. 13) 
are (i) SiKoiocrwrj, conduct in accordance with the Nature 
and Law of God, 2 Tim. ii. 22, iii. 16 ; Tit. ii. 12 ; 2 Cor. 
vi. 14 ; opposed to aSiKia, Rom. vi. 13 : (2) (vaf^tia, 
Tit. ii. 12: (3) viaris, not 'fidelity,' or 'confidence,' but 
faith in the unseen : (4) djawr] : (5) v-noixov-q, enduring 
patience, Tit. ii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 10 : (6) irpaOvaOiiau , mild- 
ness of feeling {air. \ey. in N.T.), Phil, de Ahrah. ii. p. 31; 
St. Ign. ad Trail. 8. It is possible that, while these 
virtues are selected mainly on the principles noted 
above, they are not without a reflex glance at the 
evils which spring from (pi\apyvpia (ver. 10). SiKaioavvr] 
would reject unjust means of getting money; tvaWfia, 
so far from being a means of earthly gain (ver. 5), is, 
when real, intent upon God's service ; maTis has an eye 
only to the invisible ; dyairr), too, ov ^rjTei rd kavTTJs 
(i Cor. xiii. 5), while imofiovq and vpavvaOua are alike 
satisfied with narrow means, or at any rate are opposed 
to the expedients by which wealth is often acquired.] 

[Obs. 2. The metaphor (ver. 12) is agonistic, as in i Cor. 
ix. 24 ; Phil. iii. 12. ^o;^ alwvios is the Ppafifiov which the 
dywvii^ofievos, Timothy, must lay hold of. The metaphor 
may be traced more faintly in iKX-qe-qs (as by the herald) 
and ivivmov iroKKwv pLapTvpuv, but it is seriously modified 
by els ^v, since aiwvtos ^wq is not the arena into which 
the candidates were called, but the ^paPeiov. St. Paul's 
recollections of Ephesian life would have suggested the 
metaphor not less than his memories of Corinth. See 
Wood's Discoveries at Epkesus, 1877 ; Inscriptions from the 
Great Theatre, Nos. 8, 14, 18, 20.] 

[Obs. 3. 'The good confession' .ver. 12) — good in itself, and 
without reference to Timothy's courage in making it — 
may have been made (i) at Timothy's baptism, or 
(2) on the occasion of some unrecorded persecution 
to which he was exposed (Theophyl.), but (3) more 
probably, at his consecration to be Bishop of Ephesus, 
the -noWol fxdpjvpfs being among others to irpta^vTiptov, 
I Tim. iv. 14. ofioKo-fla cannot mean a religious vow ; 
Tj KaXri oixoXoyia seems to point to a definite confession 
of Christian Truth, — 'the glorious Creed,' — which was 
uttered at admission to high and responsible office in 
the Church.] 



G 2 



84 The First Epistle to Timothy 



{ 



Exhortation 2. To keep the Law of the Gospel, here viewed 
as the Rule of Life (ttjv hroXriv), until Christ appears 
for Judgement, so that, in the eyes of men, it be without 
stain and without reproach. 

1. Motives for keeping the Christian ivToXy (ver. 13). 
'Motive I. The Presence (iva-rrLov) of God, the Source 

and Maintainer (rod ((aoyovovvros) of all living beings 
(and therefore of Timothy himself) (ver. 13). 
Motive 2. The Presence of Christ Jesus, Who, in the 
days of Pontius Pilate, Himself attested by His life, 
sufferings, and death, ' the glorious Creed ' (rriv Kakr]v 
ojxoXoyiav) which Christians profess (ver. 13). 

2. In what sense the Christian kvroX-q is to be kept (ver. 14). 
[Effort). So that it receive no stain {cktitiXov), and 
suffer no reproach {ave-niX-q-nTov) (ver. 14). 
{Limit). Until the appearance {kitK^avdas) of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, coming to Judgement in God's 
own good time (/caipois I'gtotj) (ver. 14). 

[Obs. I. St. Paul recalls (ver. 13) the Presence {kviimov) of 
God, before "Whom he writes and Timothy reads the 
Epistle, Tov (woyovovvTos, Who preserves all in life. 
CwoyovfTv in class, language means to produce, engender 
living things ; in the LXX. it translates the Piel and 
Hiphil of njn in the senses of (i) to keep in life, Ex. 
i. 17 ; Judges viii. 19 : and (2) to give life to, i Sam. ii. 6. 
In N. T. only here and St. Luke xvii. 33 ; Acts vii. 19. 
The word glances at trnKaPov rfjs altuviov (aifjs, ver. 12. 
Remembering the Presence of the Source and Upholder 
of all life, Timothy must risk, if need be, physical life 
on behalf of the evroKiq of Christ.] 

[Obs. 2. The Presence of Christ (ver. 13), Who attested ' the 
good confession ' in Pontius Pilate's days. This Presence 
of Christ is as real to St. Paul as the Presence of God. 
Note the difference between fiaprvprjaai rfiv KaXfjv d^uoAo- 
yiav attributed to our Lord, and the oixoXoytiv rfjv 
Ka\^v onoXoyiav of Timothy (ver. 12). The ojxoXoyia of 



Chapter vi. 13, 14 85 



Christian Truth is the same ; but the verbs describe 
two different relations to it. 'Testari confessionem erat 
Domini : confiteri confessionem erat Timothei,' Bengel. 
The verb fjLaprvprjaai seems here to have something of its 
later ecclesiastical meaning (De Wette) ; Christ, while 
He was much more, was the first of Martyrs. And the 
ofjLoXoyia which He attested was the general truth of 
His own relation to mankind and all that it involved ; 
not the particular ofioXoyia before Pilate, St. John 
xviii. 36. errl IIiXaTov, sub Pontio Pilato, in Pilate's time : 
temporal sense of em (Ellicott) ; Winer, Gr. N. T. p. 469, 
decides for ' coram,' and compares St. Mat. xxviii. 14 ; 
Acts XXV. 9 ; XX vi. 2.] 

[Obs. 3. The kvroXiq (ver. 14) is neither (i) the body of 
instructions for the due exercise of his office which the 
Apostle has given to Timothy in the Epistle, nor (2) the 
precept dycovi^ov k.t.\. just given in verse 12, but 
(3) Christian doctrine so far as it has reference to 
conduct, — the New or Evangelical Law conceived of as 
a Divine Rule, whereby the Christian should fashion 
his life (2 St. Pet. ii. 21 ; iii. 2). hroKr) here is parallel 
to irapaOrjKT] (ver. 20) ; but the contents of vapaG-qK-q are 
largely dogmatic, whereas ivroKr] is ethical. It is 
not merely the 'law of love,' St. John xiii. 34; but 
the whole moral and practical rule of the Gospel. It 
is natural to connect d<rm\ov and dvemKynTov with 
evTo\riv, not with tre, although elsewhere in the N. T. 
these are referred to persons, not to an abstract noun. 
St. James i. 27 ; i St. Pet. i. 19 ; i Tim. iii. 2 ; v. 7. 
In fact, evToXri here is half-personified ; as if it were 
award tenderly and solemnly committed to Timothy's 
guardianship {rr]pfiaai) ; he must protect it, by his 
own conduct, from all stain and reproach. These 
adjectives modify the sense of rrjpqaai from that of 
'observing' to 'keeping,' scil. 'spotless.' See Elli- 
cott.] 

[Obs. 4. The IvtoXtj is to be kept until the iitLipavda or 
Second Advent of Christ, which in other Epistles is 
called the irapovaia, i Cor. xv. 23, or aTroiedXvipts, i Cor. 
i. 7. The Second Advent is termed 57 (wifavtia in 2 Tim. 
iv. I, 8 ; Tit. ii. 13 ; 2 Thess. ii. 8 : while in 2 Tim. i. 10, 
this word is applied to our Lord's First Coming. The 
emfavfia is conceived of as an awful arjfittov which God 
will display (pti^u) before the eyes of men, when His 



86 The First Epistle to Timothy 



own time for doing so has come.- On Kaipoh ISiois, 
compare ii. 6 ; Tit. i. 3 ; Gal. vi. 9 : it is paraphrased in 
Acts i. 7, Kaipovs ovs 6 Tlarfjp e9eTo iv rfj iSia i^ovala. 
De Wette presses [lixpi- to show that St. Paul expected 
the Second Advent to take place before Timothy's 
natural death ; the fact being that the Apostles were 
equally prepared for His coming at any moment, or for 
a prolonged delay. In a Thess. ii. 2 sqq. St. Paul gives 
reasons for expecting a delay. St. Chrysostom's para- 
phrase ixfxpi rrjs e^oSov would have been the practical 
aspect of the expression to Timothy. The subject of the 
Second Coming leads the Apostle to utter a fervid] 

Doxology to Him Who will, in His own good time, display 
to the universe the second HicfxiveLa tov Xpia-rov 
(vv. 15, 16). 

[Obs. I. This Doxology is probably taken from an existing 
Christian Hymn. But, whether the words are originally 
St. Paul's or not, they are a sudden and intense expres- 
sion of the Revealed Idea of God, which arises in the 
Apostle's soul at the thought of the Second Appear- 
ance of Christ for Judgement : just as the Doxology in 
I Tim. i. 17 is suddenly prompted by a sense of the 
wonders of Christ's Redemption. Baur {Pastoralbrie/e, 
p. 28) sees in both these Doxologies traces of Gnostic 
influences, and proof of the late origin of the Epistle. 
He points to ^ao-fAei/s twv 0aai\ev6vraiv and (puis oIkwv 
a-npoaiTov as phrases of which ' sich zuerst hauptsachlich 
die Gnostiker bedienten, um ihre Idee von der Gottheit 
zu bezeichnen, eigneten sich sehr leicht auch die ortho- 
doxen Schriftsteller an.' But while it is not impossible 
that the writer of the Hymn had some early forms of 
'Gnostic' thought in view, when referring to these 
attributes of God, it is also certain that the Gnostics 
of the second centuiy borrowed language thus endorsed 
by the Apostle, in conducting their attack on the 
pretended Anthropopathism and Anthropomorphism 
of the O. T. (xovos BwdffTTjs and ;^6vos Qtos (_i. 17 may 
have an indirect polemical reference to the virtual 
polytheism of early Gnostic ^Eonology : but they also 
have a direct positive value, which explains the use of 
them in the middle of the first century as well as in 
that of the second.] 



God is 

described. 

as 



Chapter vi. 15, 16 87 



[Obs. 2. The Doxology may be arranged as follows : — 
b iiaKo.pio'i 

Kal fiovos SvvadTTjs, 
6 fia<Ti\(vs Twv PaaiKfvovTcov 

Kal KVpiOS TUIV KVpieVoVTQJV, 

6 ixovos €X<*"' oSavaaiav, 

(pus oIkZv atrpoaiTov, 
hv fiSfv ovSels dvOpdnrcav 

ov5^ iSHV Svyarat, 
ai TipLT) Kal KpoLTOs aiaiviov. 

/I. The Blessed One (ixaKaptos) (ver. 15). 

2. The Solitary Ruler of the universe {[xovoi 

bvvdcTTris . . . (SacTLXevs . . . Kvpios) (ver. 15). 

3. The Only Possessor of Immortality, originally, 

and from Himself (6 [jlovos ex(ov aOavaaiav) 
(ver. 16). 

4. The Being Who is infinitely remote from 

human scrutiny, as dwelling in inaccessible 
Light (0(2s QiKtiiV airpoa-LTov) (ver. 16). 

5. The Invisible, at least to the eye whether of 
\ sense or of natural intellect (ov dbev ovSet? 

av6 pcaiTcov ovbe ib^'iv bvvaTatj (ver. 16). 

m TIMH KAI KPATOS AmNION. 

[Obs. I. The absolute fiaicaptoTrjs of God is due to the 
Perfection of His Being, His Attributes. In Him then 
is ovSev XviT7]p6v, ovBiv drjSes (St. Chrys.), because He 
needs nothing to complete His Absolute Perfection. It 
is possible that here, as at i Tim. i. 11, puiKapioTrjs is 
restricted to God, in contradistinction to Gnostic 1 
theories, which would extend it to emanations or 
.^ons, as conceived by early 'Gnostics.' Although 
fxaKapios suggests a distinct aspect of the Life of God, 
it depends, like /xuvos, upon SvvaofTtjs, there being no 
article before /xovos. Observe that pLuvos precedes tx'"'' 
dOavacTiav, as well as SvudffTTis : the object being to restrict 
to God Absolute Dominion, as well as Absolute Im- 
mortality. But although piovos is contradicted by the 



88 The First Epistle to Timothy 



Gnostic Aeonology, it is still more emphatically con- 
tradicted by Polytheism and Dualism ; and there is no 
proof that the primary motive of the word is Anti- 
Gnostic. The idea of i^ovoi Svv6.arT]s is only expanded 
by Pam\fi>s . . . Kvpifv6vr<uu. For Svydarrjs, see St. Luke 
i. 52 ; Acts viii. 27 : and with reference to God, 2 Mace, 
iii. 24 ; xii. 15 ; xv. 4, 23. PaatKeiis PaaiXtwv is used of 
our Lord in Rev. xvii. 14 ; xix. 16. Kvpios Kvpiojv, Deut. 
X. 17 ; Psalm cxxxvi. 3. On the Sovereignty or Dominion 
of God, see Pearson, Creed, Art. i. p. 51.] 

[Obs. 2. On the Immortality of God. He is fjiovos ex'^" 
dOavaffiav, cf. i. 17. To all other beings Immortality is 
a gift : in Him it is an essential property, ovic Ik 
0e\T]fiaTOS dWov TavrrjV «X*'> taOa/ntp 01 Xoitrot navres 
dOdvarot, dK\' 6« t^s o'lKfias ovaias. St. Just. Martyr, 
Qu. et resp. ad Orthod. 61. ' Immortalitatem Deus habere 
dicitur solus, quia est immutabilis solus. In omni 
enim mutabili natura nonnulla mors est ipsa mutatio.' 
St. Aug. Contra Maximin. ii. 12. dOavaa'ia is synonymous 
with dcpOapaia, i Cor. xv. 53.] 

[Obs. 3. On the Inscrutableness of God. He is (pus oIkwv 
drrpoaiTov. God, Who is said to be Himself Light 
(i St. John i. 5), is nowhere else represented as dwell- 
ing in Light. But cf. Ps. civ. 2 ; Ezek, i. 26 sqq. ; 
St. Chrys. in loc. : d'AXo to <pus avros, Kal dWo b o'lKfi ; 
ovKovv Kal TOTTO) ifnt(pii'i\r]TTrai ; dnayf. Ovx '*'« rovro 
vo-qawjxfv, dXK' iva rb dKaTdX-rjirrov ttjs Oecas (pvffeojs napa- 
arrjcrT), (pw? avrov o'lKfiv (inty dnp6(XiTov, ovrco OeoXoyrjaas, 
ws ^v avTw dwarov. Theophilus ad Autolyc. i. 5, observes, 
that if man cannot bear to gaze at the sun, ircus ovxl 
(idWov ry Tov Qeov 5u(ti dviKfppdarw ova]) avOpcunos Ovtjrus 
oi dwarai dvTaiTTTJaai I On the incomprehensibleness of 
God, see Pearson, Minor Works, i. p. 133.] 

[Obs. 4. On the Invisibility of God to the eye of sense and 
to the eye of the natural understanding, bv dSfv ovStls 
ovSe iSfiv dvvarai. This passage, and Ex. xxxiii. 20 ; 
Deut. iv. 12 ; St. John i. 18 ; i St. John iv. 12 ; St. Mat. 
xi. 27, are not inconsistent with St. Mat. v. 8 ; Heb. 
xii. 14 ; since these two latter texts refer to the intellect 
illuminated by Grace, to which the sight of God is 
vouchsafed. Cf. Pearson, Minor Works, i. p. 126.] 

[Obs. 5. With ^ Ttynjj, k.t.\. cf. i. 17 ; i St. Pet. iv. 11; 

V. II.] 



Chapter vi. 17, 18 



89 



Exhortation 3. To tell rich Christians at Ephesus the plain 
truth about the dangers and the responsibilities of 
wealth (vv. 17-19). 

[Obs. On the excessive wealth and luxury of Ephesus at 
this period, see Renan, Saint Paul, pp. 336, 337. It is 
abundantly proved from the Inscriptions published at 
the end of Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus : e.g. Inscriptions 
from the Great Theatre, No. i sqq., enumerating the gifts 
of Salutarius. There would have been some wealthy 
converts at Ephesus before a. d. 67 : there were certainly 
some who owned slaves. Cf. i Tim. vi. 2, viarovs 



SeiTTroTas.] 



I. to think 
and feel 

rightly 

about 
their 

wealth 
(ver. 17), 

and so 



a. nega- 
tively 



h. i^osi- 
tively 



Timothy- 
is to 
charge 
those 
who are 
wealthy 
in this 1 
life 
(rot? 
mXovatois 
(V TW vvv 



iii. to 

hope 

in 

God 



2. to use 

their 

wealth 

rightly 

(ver. 18), 
and so 



d. not to think highly of them- 
selves (on account of it) (/xrj 
v\pr}\o(t)poveiv) (ver. 17). 
i ii. not to base hope on any- 
thing so uncertain as riches 
(jjLrjbe rjKTTiKivai. €7rl tiXovtov 
dSrjAoTTjn) (ver. 17). 

[a. as the Ever-living 
Being (rw (&vTt) 
(ver. 17).] 
■I j3. as the bountiful 
Giver of all things for 
our enjoyment (ds 
cnrokava-Lv) (ver. 17). 
i. (quality) good with it 

(ayaOoepyeZv) (ver. 18). 
ii. (quantity) abundant 
and eminent good with it 
(irXovTeiv €V ipyots koAois) 
(ver. 18). 
/i. to give it away to others 
(ev/xero8oTous) (ver. 18). 
habitually-^ ii. to share it, if retained, 
ready j with others (Koiv(t)viKovs) 



\ 



a. actually 
to do 



b. to be 



I 



(ver. 18). 



90 



The First Epistle to Timothy 



3. to have 

a right 

scope and 

aim in 

thus 
using it 
(ver. ig), 

viz. 
■ a right 



I a. theory of the act. Wealth given to 
God is laid up in store for the Eternal 
Future: it is a foundation {Kakov 
defxektov) of self-denial (on which the 
spiritual life may be built) (ver. ig). 
b. motive of the act. That those who 
give their wealth to God may lay hold 
on the real life (r?/? ovtcos ((^rjs), which 
begins here and lasts into eternity 

\ (ver. ig). 



[Obs. I. The wealthy Chi-istians (ver. 17 \ whom Timothy- 
is to warn and command, are said to be Tr\ovcioi (v tZ 
vvv alwvi, and they ought to lay up treasure eis to neWov 
(ver. 19). The Jews distinguished the D^Sn "'"l^tJ'y 
from the truly rich : and this contrast underlies the 
expressions drjaavpol kv oxipavw, St. Mat. vi. 20 ; eis Qibv 
TrkovTfiv, St. Luke xii. 21 ; as well as ■rr\ovTos tov ^iov, 
St. Luke viii. 14. In the same way St. James (ii. 5) 
speaks of tovs tttojxovs to; Koapiw, who yet are rrXovaiovs 
kv mffTfi. That irKovaiots kv tw vvv alwvi must be taken 
together as a single expression, see Winer, Gr.N. T. p. 170. 
. On kv ra> vvv alwvi, St. Chrysostom observes, KaKus dinv 
eifft yap leai dWot ttKovuioi kv tw fxkKKovTiA 

[Obs. 2. The bad habits of mind (ver. 17) engendered by 
wealth are (il vipTjXocppoveiv, used of over-estimating self 
on spiritual grounds in Rom. xi. 20 ; of. to v^tjKo. <ppoviiv, 
Rom. xii. 16. To be purse-proud is not less sinful 
because modern feeling condemns the outward exhibition 
of it as 'bad taste,' and so forces it to assume subtle 
shapes which escape notice : (2) to rest hope k-nl ttXovtov 
d5r]k6TT}Ti, not simply knl rqi irKovrai tS> ddT)\ai, but (using 
an idiom, whereby the principal subst. is in the gen., and 
the adjectival idea is expressed by another subst.) upon 
wealth, the main characteristic of which is its dSTjXorrjs. 
So Rom. vi. 4, KaivoTTjTi foj^j. Winei-, Gr.N. T. p. 296. These 
faults are counteracted by hope in God. The construction 
of k\m^€iv with kv is rare in N. T. See Eph. i. 12 ; 
I Cor. XV. 19. (Lachmann reads k-ni with apparently 
the majority of MSS.) This hope is warranted (i) tw 
CwvTi (D K L, Peschito, Ital., but perhaps doubtful) by the 



Chapter vi. 19, 20 91 



fact that God is a living Being (iv. lo) ; (2) by the 
fact that it is He Who gives us all things abundantly 
for enjoyment, — not to set our hearts upon them : cf. eh 
Hfrd\Tj\ptv, iv. 3 ; St. Luke xvi. 9 ; St. Mark x. 24 ; Jer. 
ix. 23 ; Ps. Ixii. 10.] 

[Obs. 3. The use of wealth (ver. 18) is (i) dyaOofpydv, to do 
good ; {dyaOovpyetv, Acts xiv. 17 ;') dyaOoTroifiy, Num. x. 32 
LXX ; I Mace. xi. 33 ; (2) -nKovTeiv kv epyois kuXoT?, im- 
plying greater activity and higher excellence of work 
with ref. to TrXovaiois Iv ri^ vvv alwvi [yer. 17) ; cf. 2 Cor. 
ix. 8, Tteptaaevdv th ndv tpyov dyaOov : Tobit iv. 8. So 
Theophylact, ei -nXovrHv 6e\(is, kv dyaOoepyiq, nXovTfi. 
(3) (v/xeraSuTovs (tvai, open-handed, like God (ver. 17), 
Tw TraptxovTi ; (4) KoivojviKovs, ready to welcome others 
to share in what they have. Gal. vi. 6, KotvoivflTtv 6 Karr]- 
Xov/JLevos Tuv \6yov tw KaTr)\ovvTL kv irdaiv dyaOois : Heb. 
xiii. 16, TTj<i evwotias koI Koivwvias jxr) kTn\av6dvioO(.^ 

[Obs. 4. The principle upon which wealth is to be used for 
doing good (ver. 19) is that, by taking from their plenty 
to give to God and His poor, men treasure it up (d-nodr]- 
aavpi^ovras kavroTs) for their own real advantage. Such 
wealth becomes a OfukKios Ka\6s, on the surrender of 
which they may build up the edifice of the Christian 
virtues, with a view to (iVa) laying hold on the True 
Life {ttjs ovtcos C'^rjs). Spiritual victory is often to be 
based only on such self-denial, as in the case of the 
Rich Young Man, St. Luke xviii. 18 sqq. aTTodrjaavpi^dv 
OffifKiov is a condensed expression for diroOTjaavpti^dv 
it\ovtov KaXwv epyaiv cl»s de/xtXiov : t^s ovtcvs Cojfjs, the life 
which really is life, because there is no death to end it : 
alcuviov, text, rec, appears to be a gloss on ovtojs.'] 

Exliortation 4, To guard the Deposit of the Faith (ver. 20). 
(rTjy T:apa6i]Kriv) (vv. 20, 2l). 

[Obs. I. S) TipLoOfi (ver. 20). This earnest personal appeal 
introduces the concluding paragraph, which is a summary 
of the most essential points of the Epistle. So in 
2 Cor. xiii. 11.] 

[Obs. a. The Deposit (ver. 20) rrfv TrapadijK-qv, a treasure 
entrusted to a person, who will be asked to account 
for it ; Herod, ix. 45. Here it means the depositum fidei, 
given in trust to Timothy as a Bishop. So in 2 Tim. i. 14, 
T^i' KaXfjv irapaOTjKTjv <pvKa^ov bid Xlvfvp.aTO's 'Ayiov, where 
Kakfj TrapaQiiKT] is synonymous with iiyiaivovres Kuyoi 



92 The First Epistle to Timothy 



(ver. 13) : 2 Tim. ii. 2, a ^Kovaas irap' f/iov Sia iroWwv 
HapTvpoiv, ravra irapaOov maroh avOpiitrois : i Tim. i. 18, 
ravTrjv t^v irapayyeXiav -napariOfixai aoi. Here the word 
clearly refers to the deposit of the faith lodged by the 
Apostle in the guardianship of Timothy : in 2 Tim. 
i. 12, T^v napaOrjKTjv is the stewardship committed to the 
Apostle (see EUicott in loc). That Timothy's 'soul,' or 
'the ministerial grace given him,' is here meant, is not 
borne out by the context, which contrasts the irapaOrjKT] 
with the tpevSuvvfios yvwais. On the deposit of the faith 
committed to the Christian Church, see Vincent. Lirin., 
Commonitorium, c. 22 : ' Quid est depositum ? Id est, quod 
tibi creditum est, non quod a te inventum ; quod ac- 
cepisti, non quod excogitasti ; rem non ingenii sed 
doctrinae, non usurpationis privatae sed publicae tra- 
ditionis, rem ad te perductam non a te prolatam, in 
qua non auctor debes esse, sed custos, non institutor, 
sed sectator.'] 

§ How Timothy must guard the Deposit of the Faith. By 
turning himself away from (kKvpeiroixevos) 

1. the profane unmeaning language {ras f ^^ ^^^ falsely- 

,, 1 ,. .,. A termed yi;&)(ns 

2. the speculative propositions opposed 

to Apostolic teaching (ras avTidecms) ^ 

§ Reason. From experience. Some ijives) professors of 
(eTTayyeXAo'/Aeyoi) this yywrris have, as far as the Faith 
is concerned, missed their true aim in life (Trept tt]v 
iricTTLV ri(TT6\T\aav) (ver. 21). 

[Obs. I. When Timothy is desired to turn himself away 
from the false gnosis (ver. 20) in order to guard the 
deposit, it is not meant that this is all he has to do ; 
cf. Tit. i. 9, Toiis avTiKiyovTas eXtyxftv. The yvwats must 
be studied, if it is to be refuted ; but Timothy, it is 
implied, might be attracted by its pretensions to 
originality or thoroughness. A love of and jealous care 
for the True Faith involves as its correlative a distaste 
for the error which rejects it. fKTpeno/xfvos, turning self 
from something, with an ace. rei : as dvorpineadai 2 Tim. 
iii. 5. kKTpi-madai is synonymous with irapaiTuaOai ; the 
two distinct acts imply the same mental attitude.] 



Chapter vi. 21 93 



[Obs. 2. The 'gnosis' (ver. 20) is characterized by (i) wti/o- 
<pwviai : empty phrases with no solid meaning, which are 
/3fj3?7\o(, outside the shrine of truth — 'profane nonsense;' 
of. iMaraioXoyia, i. 6 ; 2 Tim. ii. 16 : (2) rds avriOiaas, hostile 
polemical statements, directed against the Apostolic 
teaching ; cf. i. 10, d ri trtpov rrj vyiatvovari 5iSa(jKa\ici 
dvTiiceiTai, where, however, it is moral opposition to the 
Gospel in a concrete form that is in question. These 
dvrt$(cr(is are not to be confounded with the Koyo/Jtaxiai, 
and ^rjTrjafis (vi. 4) of the Ephesian teachers, which 
would correspond to the K(vo<pajviai. They are formal 
contradictions of the Revealed Tru^ ; cf. Tit. i. g, Touy 
dvTiXiyovTas. Baur (Pastoralbriefe, p. 26) sees in raj 
dvTiBea f IS a reference to the ' antitheses ' of Marcion : 
* id est, contrariae oppositiones, quae conantur discor- 
diam evangelii cum lege committere, ut ex diversitate 
sententiarum utriusque Instrument! diversitatem quo- 
que argumententur Deorum,' Tert. adv. Marc. i. 19. But 
Tertullian's own ti'eatise shows how differently that 
work would have been treated if the writer of this 
Epistle had been a forger of the second century. The 
gnosis is called \pfv5uivvi/.os, because true knowledge of 
revealed Truth starts from Faith in Divine Revelation : 
orav yoip mffTis fXT) 17, yvaiffis ovk eariv (St. Chrys.). 
tf/evSwvvixos, an. Key. N. T.] 

[Obs. 3. The professors of this yvSiais who are distantly 
referred to (rji/es, as in i. 3, 6 ; vi. 3) would be known 
to Timothy. It is implied that they somehow meant 
to be loyal to Faith, as well as to yvuiais : probably 
regarding the object-matter of faith as so much addi- 
tional material for 'gnostic' speculation. Practically 
however, irtpl ri^v mcrrtv rjaroxriaav : observe the historic 
aorist. For daTox^^v with a gen., see i. 5, 6, where 
possibly the same failures are referred to ; cf. 2 Tim. ii. 18, 
for the construction in this passage.] 

§ Apostolic Benediction: ?/ x^P'? M^'''" <^oC (ver. 21). 

[Obs, ju€0' vnwv (N A F, Lachm.) for aov is probably a cor- 
rection introduced from 2 Tim. iv. 22 ; Tit. iii. 15. If 
aov be the true reading, the Church of Ei^hesus is 
blessed in its Chief Pastor.] 



OXFORD : HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



-^ 



.^ 



Date Due 


- . ijma^^^ 


iH 






m^^ 


<# 






wmm^ 








-flRP 1 '^Jfifli 


k 






— - ■ ■ ■ ■ «pi ^ly 


WJ^ttttMtHtlM 


l*!9 








,.o,-' 






0t*f'^V ' ■■■""" 


tt' 






oo-^^rif 
















~" 
















MHMI 


p-^ 






















































f) 


PRINTED 


IN U. S. A. 






Explanatory analysis of St. Paul's First 

Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 



1 1012 00069 4614 



"^'^^y^^ 







m 



Kr;t.''.-^v*f!>!ili 






' '■} •^i''^'.:-:''-:'H:;;i 






liifeiiiiii